Donald C. Maclurcan
Submitted:June 28th, 2004
Posted: September 30th, 2005
What is Nanotechnology and How is it New?
Ancient Origins of Nanotechnology
Reasons Why Nanotechnology has
only Come to the Fore in Recent Times
Relevant, Appropriate Applications for Developing Country
Dispelling Misconceptions about
Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology
to Developing Countries
Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis
Nanotechnology Research into
Prevention of Other Infectious Diseases such as HIV/AIDS
Long Term Effects of Nanoparticles
Risk versus Benefits of Nanotechnology
and its Effect on Applications
The Potential Nature of Developing Country Engagement with
Which Countries will Manufacture
and which Will become Nanotechnology Importers
Developing Countries Active
in Nanotechnology Development
Patent Applications as an Indicator
of Nanotechnology Activity
In recent times, nanotechnology has been included in a number of the debates
considering emerging technology and developing countries. However, the literature
considering nanotechnology's application to the developing world has often
varied in its interpretation of what nanotechnology really is. Furthermore,
despite a wide range of perspectives as to the relevance, appropriateness and
potential impact of nanotechnology for developing countries, the key debates
have often remained disengaged. This paper attempts to clarify understandings
of nanotechnology and synthesize discussions on issues of relevance, appropriateness
and distribution with respect to developing countries. In support, recent developments
in nanotechnology and healthcare are provided.
In recent times, a number of research groups have stimulated debate on nanotechnology's
possible applications and implications for developing countries [see, for example,
1, 2, 3]. However, many of the subsequent papers have failed to distinguish
theoretical- from currently feasible-nanotechnology [see, for example, 3, 4,
5]. In international debates, distinction between the near-term, possible reality
and theoretical science is crucial to the efficient exchange of information.
Furthermore, amongst those considering developing country engagement with nanotechnology,
a range of perspectives are held concerning 'appropriateness' and
nanotechnology's likely impact on the developing world. Some individuals
challenge a pervasive acceptance of nanotechnology, expressing concern about
developing country exploitation [Shiva cited in 6], insubstantial consideration
for issues of risk and regulation , the loss of traditional markets  and
an identification of nanotechnology applications that fails to consider historical
trends and current barriers to technology distribution . Others adopt a more
utilitarian approach, linking nanotechnology applications in water, energy,
health, food and agriculture to the fulfilment of the United Nation's
(U.N.) Millennium Development Goalsa [4, 10], despite
earlier recognition of its potential to stimulate a greater divide between the
'haves' and 'have-nots' .
Despite surprising levels of nanotechnology research and development (R&D)
in the developing world , arguments concerning nanotechnology's role
as a protagonist or antagonist to sustainable developmentb
In this paper we seek to clarify understandings of nanotechnology and synthesize
discussions on issues of relevance, appropriateness and equity with respect
to developing countries. With infectious and parasitic disease remaining the
greatest cause of death in the developing world  and nanotechnology predicted
to affect half of the world's drug production by 2011 , examples relevant
to health are commonly cited.
What is Nanotechnology and How is it New?
For citizens in the developed world already exposed to the term 'nanotechnology',
associated impressions may be that it deals with 'very small things',
concerns 'submarine robots in the bloodstream' and brings with it
the threat of 'grey goo'c. The latter,
more popular ideations, essentially stem from K. Eric Drexler's proposal
that atoms and molecules could act as self-assembling machinery, performing
production tasks at the nanoscaled .
However, what is now universally accepted as 'nanotechnology',
yet sometimes less noted, is an area evolving somewhat independently of Drexler's
visions. Following challenges from the general scientific community, on the
basis of technological feasibility, Drexler renamed his understanding and aspirations
for nanotechnology: 'molecular manufacturing'. Thus, in the 21st
Century, the term 'nanotechnology', whilst similar to molecular
manufacturing in that it involves work on the level of atoms and molecules,
refers to an applied science, focussed upon exploiting novelties arising from
size-dependent phenomena exhibited in nanoscale matter. When dealing with matter
below approximately 50 nanometres, the laws of quantum physics supersede those
of traditional physics, resulting in "...changes to a substance's
conductivity, elasticity, reactivity, strength, colour, and tolerance to temperature
and pressure" . Such changes are useful to all industrial sectors
where nanotechnology will enable smaller, faster, 'smarter', cheaper,
lighter, safer, cleaner and more precise solutions [17-19]. For example, in
the field of drug delivery, Peppas notes that nanoscale pH-sensitive hydrogels
for treating patients with multiple sclerosis, "release at varying rates
depending on the pH of the surrounding environment", suggesting that "...these
nanoparticle carriers may protect drugs from being broken down in the body until
they reach the small intestine" . Furthermore, progressing from the
micro- to nano-scale involves inherent increases in a material's surface
area and surface-to-volume ratio that can be used to manufacturing advantage.
Ancient Origins of Nanotechnology
Yet, utilising science at the nanoscale is not new. For example, in the 4th
Century A.D., the Romans applied gold and silver nanoparticles to colour glass
cups . The resulting artefacts were red in transmitted light and green in
reflected light - a sophistication not reproduced again until medieval
times. There are many scientists today who would argue they have been conducting
research in the realms of the nanoscale since well before 1990.
Reasons Why Nanotechnology has only Come to the Fore in Recent
So how come more and more people are talking about nanotechnology as the 'next
big thing' if it has 'existed' for such a long time? There
are three main reasons. Firstly, only in the past few decades have we really
had the experimental means to conduct work focussed on activity at the nanoscale.
Emerging tools, including scanning probe microscopy, quantum mechanical computer
simulation and soft X-ray lithography, have combined with new synthesis methods,
such as chemical vapour deposition, leading to a significantly greater, ever
accelerating understanding of scientific endeavour at the nanoscale. These progressions
have been paralleled by the discovery of materials such as fullerenes and nanotubes
and, in more recent years, stimulated by a flood of government nanotechnology
funding in countries such as the U.S., China and Japan.
Secondly, nanotechnology has, as its underlying aim, the desire to manufacture
with ultimate precision on the atomic scale in a 'bottom-up' manner.
This means that, rather than the traditional approach to manufacturing whereby
bulk materials are whittled down, nanotechnology aims to produce devices commencing
with the self-assembly of individual atoms into precise configurations, as has
been the case with combinational chemistry for many years. Whilst a great deal
of nanotechnology continues to utilise 'top-down' processes such
as lithography, the gradual trend is towards 'bottom-up' approaches
that hold numerous, long-term manufacturing, financial and environmental advantages.
Thirdly, and arguably most importantly, the recognition of nanotechnology as
an emerging field demands and creates new levels of multi-disciplinary collaboration
and cross-fertilisation amongst the sciences. Practically, this happens because
of the integrated exploitation of biological principles, physical laws and chemical
properties at the nanoscale . The increasing desire and need to classify
technology resulting from nanoscale manipulation and the progressive integration
of scientific disciplines at a unifying length-scale, has led to the accepted
term 'nanotechnology', under which new research is growing and existing
research is often re-classified. Whilst nanotechnology is projected by the U.S.
National Science Foundation (NSF) to have a global market value of $1 trillione
by 2011 , early signs in the information and communications technology (ICT)
and textile industries are that nanotechnology is more complementary, than displacing.
According to a UNESCO-sponsored study in 1996, "nanotechnology will provide
the foundation of all technologies in the new century" . However,
basket-casing nanotechnology as 'another biotechnology' runs the
risk of disregarding novel implications (both advantageous and detrimental).
For those involved in the development of nanotechnology policy, one of the greatest
challenges will be the efficient use of time; distinguishing and dealing with
novel ethical, legal and social implications whilst ensuring appropriate contextualisation.
Relevant, Appropriate Applications for Developing Country
Given the 'capital intensive, high-tech, science fiction' branding
it has received from much of the developed world media, nanotechnology would
appear highly incongruous with sustainable development practices. In response
to a recent study that ranked nanotechnology applications, from social development
cluster areasf, according to their potential benefit
for developing countries , Invernizzi and Foladori, cite the ability of
China and Vietnam to significantly reduce malaria in the last century without
the use of emerging technologies .
Furthermore, Brown notes that, "within development circles there is
a suspicion of technology boosters as too often people promoting expensive,
inappropriate fixes that take no account of development realities" .
Others believe the promotion and debate about nanotechnology in countries such
as India, China and Brazil, threatens to divert and detract resources, political
will and attention from the needs of the poor  and could inhibit research
necessary to "address society's problems in a systemic manner"
[Mulvaney cited in 6]. In addition to nanotechnology possibly promoting a 'technical
fix' approach , there is a concern that high entry prices for new
procedures and skills are "very likely to exacerbate existing divisions
between rich and poor" [Healy, cited in, 28].
Dispelling Misconceptions about Nanotechnology
Yet much of the early commentary from research groups and developing countries
engaging in nanotechnology discussions has been united in the identification
of relevant applications in areas such as solar cell technology, water purification;
and health-related diagnostics and therapeutics [1, 4, 29-32]. At an international
policy level there has been a push from individuals, such as the U.N. Under-Secretary
for Economic Affairs, to include nanotechnology in discussions concerning emerging
technology and sustainable development . Representatives from the U.N. Conference
on Trade and Development and Commission on Science and Technology for Development
have suggested that nanotechnology can help "reduce the cost and increase
the likelihood of attaining the Millennium Development Goals" . Individuals
with the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka believe that, whilst nanotechnology
research and development is 'high-tech', the products it enables,
can be appropriate for use throughout the world . Harper suggests it is
this misconception, that nanotechnology is "all about high technology,
semiconductors and science fiction", that is creating a major barrier
to nanotechnology being viewed as appropriate to the development setting .
Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology to Developing Countries
In a recent study that ranked nanotechnology applications according to their
potential benefit for developing countries, water treatment, disease diagnosis/screening
and drug delivery systems respectively rated 3rd, 4th and 5th, behind energy
storage, production, and conversion (1st) and agricultural productivity enhancement
(2nd) . Salvarezza believes nanotechnology offers an area such as developing
country healthcare, "safer drug delivery, new methods for prevention,
diagnosis and treatment of diseases" . In rural areas, Harper argues
that pulmonary or epidermal drug delivery applications utilising nanotechnology,
"have the potential to free up the large numbers of trained medical personnel
who are currently engaged in administering drugs via hypodermic needles"
. Furthermore, Barker comments that slow-release drugs, important for those
in remote areas, could be assisted by nano-porous membranes . In a joint
project between groups in the U.S., India and Mexico, inexpensive, maintenance
free solar panels, aimed at powering rural clinics and refrigerating medicines,
are currently being developed . Could nanotechnology empower local healthcare
auxiliaries, in rural settings worldwide, to address diagnostic and therapeutic
concerns by reducing reliance on trained specialists or technical assistance?
Or does such as suggestion sound similar to the many promises of past technological
revolutions that were challenged by the realities of global development and
domestic technology distribution?
Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis using Nanotechnology
Many believe nanotechnology offers new ways to address residual scientific
concerns for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). Declared a global emergency by
the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1993, the re-emerging threat of TB continues
to be technically compounded by significant increases in the prevalence of multi-drug
resistance (MDR), in a number of settings . Treatments with improved sustained
release profiles and bioavailability can increase compliance through reduced
drug requirements and therein minimise MDR-TB . Additionally, improved diagnostic
tools are required to meet the needs of the WHO's expansion of the Directly
Observed Treatment Short-course, MDR and co-infection with HIV .
In India, the country with the highest estimated number of TB cases , research
is underway into the role nanotechnology can play in addressing such concerns.
A nanotechnology-based TB diagnostic kit, designed by the Central Scientific
Instruments Organisation of India and currently in the clinical trials phase,
does not require skilled technicians for use  and offers efficiency, portability,
user-friendliness and availability for as little as 30 rupees  (less than
US$1). In the Medical Sciences division of the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers
are investigating an optical biosensor for rapid TB detection . Furthermore,
a group at RMIT University, in Australia, is conducting research into the application
of novel tethered nanoparticles as low-cost, colour based assays for TB diagnosis
Polylactide co-glycolide nanoparticles are being investigated by groups at
Harvard University (U.S.), the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and
Research (India) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South
Africa), as drug carriers for treating TB [46-48]. So far, all groups have registered
high levels of drug encapsulation efficiency, whilst both the Indian and South
African groups have demonstrated sustained release profiles. Furthermore, the
Indian group have reported increased bioavailability and "undetectable
bacterial counts in the lungs and spleens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected
mice" 21 days post-inoculation . The South African group claim that
a prototype of their work should be ready for commercialisation by 2007/8 .
Furthermore, a nanotechnology-based vaccine adjuvant for TB was developed by
the U.S firm, Biosante, in 2002 .
Nanotechnology Research into Prevention of Other Infectious
Diseases such as HIV/AIDS
TB is just one example of current nanotechnology research relevant to infectious
diseases most prevalent in the developing world. Inter alia, science ministers
from South Africa, Brazil and India have been working together on identifying
ways in which nanotechnology can assist HIV/AIDS . An Australian company,
Starpharma™, is developing a preventative, clear, HIV microbicide gel,
based on dendrimer nanotechnology, that would remain effective when applied
by women up to four hours in advance of sexual intercourse . Also in Australia,
the Austin Research Institute has conducted successful trials into nano-vaccines
for malaria . Researchers at the State University of Campinas, Brazil, are
investigating drug and vaccine delivery for leishmaniasis . At the Chidicon
Medical Center in Nigeria, researchers are studying nanoscale copolymer assemblies
for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic management of infectious diseases .
Furthermore, in a joint project between the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
(U.S.) and Banaras Hindu University (India), scientists are investigating easy-to-manufacture,
carbon nanotube filters that remove nano-scale germs, such as the polio viruses,
E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, from water .
Long Term Effects of Nanoparticles
Whilst Barker comments that "any helpful technologies should be brought
into service..." for developing countries , others caution about
the unknown risks associated with nanoparticle accumulation, toxicology and
permeation . As a report to the European parliament noted, "the state
of research concerning [sic]... The behaviour of nano-particles is actually
rather limited, preliminary as well as contradictory" . Whilst the
comprehensive 2004 report by the Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering
(U.K.) recommends that "factories and research laboratories treat manufactured
nanoparticles and nanotubes as if they were hazardous waste streams" ,
many traditional Chinese medicines are now known to have contained metal nanoparticles
. Hoet et al. argue that "...producers of nanomaterials have a
duty to provide relevant toxicity test results for any new material, according
to prevailing international guidelines on risk assessment" , leaving
others disturbed that the cosmetic industry has refused to release test data
into the public domaing, despite claiming that products such as sunscreen lotions
are safe .
Furthermore, early suggestions from the U.S. and U.K., that nanotechnology
is inherently regulated , have encountered stiff opposition from the action
group on erosion, technology and concentration (ETC group), and others, who
believe nanotechnology enters a 'regulatory vacuum' and that some
new properties of nanoparticles are not covered by existing chemical regulations
Risk versus Benefits of Nanotechnology and its Effect on
However, in light of the debate surrounding Genetically Modified foods, Court
et al. argue that an exclusive focus from the developed world upon issues of
risk threatens to divert attention from identifying and applying nanotechnology
to the developing world . An engagement with 'risk' and the consideration
of nanotechnology's application to the developing world need not be mutually
exclusive. In fact, although technological 'risk' affects countries
in different ways depending on the nature of their engagement with change, it
remains a universal consideration and a crucial factor in ensuring the appropriateness
of new technology, to any setting.
Although in-depth discussions about health risks and the contribution of developing
country perspectives are beyond the scope of this paper, it is clear that a
number of issues remain unresolved and require greater consideration that incorporates
truly global perspectives.
The Potential Nature of Developing Country Engagement with
The nature of nanotechnology's global impact will largely depend on
the answers to five, key questions surrounding nanotechnology innovation: who?
what? when? where? and why? Developing countries will experience differing forms
of engagement with nanotechnology but can we comment on any overall impacts?
Will nanotechnology, as Daar suggests, be "a profitable industry for countries
in the Southh" ? Or will it "exploit the South" [Shiva
cited in 6] and threaten developing country markets in primary production areas
such as cotton, rubber and minerals ?
Will developing countries play the role of the 'manufacturing-base'
for nanotechnology innovation, as suggested by Whittingham and Bateman's
2003 'cost-benefit analysis of moving nanotechnology R&D and manufacturing
to Eastern European and developing countries' ? Already, Malaysia
and South Africa have been highlighted as countries with comparative advantage
in manufacturing for nanotechnology [32, 63].
Which Countries will Manufacture and which Will become Nanotechnology
Perhaps the nature of developing country engagement with nanotechnology is
believed as largely given? Salvarezza argues that an identification of Northern-based
nanotechnology applications for the developing world predisposes participants
to a scenario where "developing countries appear as passive actors...
turning them into NT [nanotechnology] importers", widening economic and
technological dependence .
Yet others point to the effective development of biotechnology R&D in
China, India, Brazil and Cuba, suggesting an early developing country engagement
with nanotechnology innovation could reduce the possibility of these countries
being net importers of the technology [25, 64]. Given that domestic innovation
and technological advance have been identified as the most important mechanism
for the ability of countries to improve economically and ultimately close the
rich-poor divide , nanotechnology has been promoted by a recent UNESCO report
as important to developing country innovation .
Developing Countries Active in Nanotechnology Development
With this in mind, a 2003 report by the University of Toronto Joint Centre
for Bioethics claimed a number of developing countries are exhibiting a "surprising
amount of nanotechnology activity" . The study noted that China, India
and South Korea had established national activities in nanotechnology; Thailand,
The Philippines, South Africa, Brazil and Chile had some form of government
support and national funding programs were being developed; whilst Mexico and
Argentina had some form of organised nanotechnology activity but no specific
government funding . Some see nanotechnology enabling developing countries
"to 'leap frog' their way to leadership" , with
the Indian government looking to use nanotechnology to 'catch up'
in global economic terms [67, 68].
Patent Applications as an Indicator of Nanotechnology Activity
However, with patents known to be a useful indicator of "technology
development" , an assessment of 2003 figures from the U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office (USPTO) highlighted the commanding lead held by the U.S.
in nanoscale science and engineering patenting, with 42% of the overall share.
Germany followed with 15.3%, and Japan was placed 3rd, with 12.6%
. Fast growth was said to be occurring in South Korea, the Netherlands,
Ireland and China. A report later that year claimed China was ranked 3rd in
general nanotechnology patents behind the U.S. and Japan .
Furthermore, of all the U.S. patent applications in nanotechnology, 90% are
held by the private sector, with the remainder split amongst the public sector
(roughly 7% from universities and 3% from government agencies and collaborative
research centres) . In recent times, companies such as '3M',
'IBM' and 'Hewlett Packard' are allocating approximately
one-third of their respective R&D budgets to nanotechnology . Canadian-based
nanotechnology start-up, 'C Sixty Inc', has, as its core assets,
numerous patents concerning fullerenes and drug delivery. As their CEO stated,
"if people want to get in this game they have to deal with us" [Sagman,
cited in 73]. These figures and comments raise the concern that innovation will
be tied up by the private sector of the North, with broad-sweeping patents limiting
the development of new technologies and increasing global science's ties
to market demands .
A further example of market pressures was witnessed with the 2004 'Nanowater'
conference, held in North America. Following the claim by researchers at Oklahoma
State University in the U.S. that they could utilise the ability of zinc oxide
nanoparticles to remove arsenic from water , preliminary conference material
presented Bangladesh as an example in which nanotechnology could address the
very serious problem of arsenic levels and potable water. Furthermore, the conference
aimed "to focus the attention of the nanotechnology community on the potential
of technology to change the world for good" . However, the conference
did not involve any developing country in its proceedings, and developing country
issues were not directly addressedi.
Already, civil society organisations from South Africa, Ghana, Kenya, Zimbabwe,
Mali, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Benin have signed the 'Cape Town Declaration',
calling for global participation in decisions about nanotechnology , highlighting
fear that certain groups will be poorly represented in relevant discussions.
The issue of participation is not limited to country participation. For nanotechnology
to make a significant contribution to sustainable development within developing
countries, a much greater interplay amongst business, academic, donor, non-governmental
and governmental sectors is required .
Scientific developments and increasing international attention have promoted
our ability to work with and understand the nanoscale. Nanotechnology provides
a new focus for research through its aim to manufacture from the 'bottom-up'
rather than from the 'top down'. It also demands an unprecedented
collaborative and integrated approach to science and technology.
In the interest of dialogue, it is important that papers concerning nanotechnology
and developing countries distinguish the kind of nanotechnology being discussed.
Like many past technologies, nanotechnology could be both relevant and appropriate
to sustainable development practices in developing countries. In an area such
as tuberculosis and rural health, nanotechnology has the potential to empower
a local response to challenges such as the diagnosis and treatment of infectious
disease. However, there is also a danger in viewing nanotechnology as a 'solution'
to developing country challenges. In some cases its application may undermine
alternative, more appropriate approaches to dealing with the problems at hand.
Throughout nanotechnology's ongoing evaluation process, both risk assessment
and the global contextualisation of nanotechnology's promises must be
recognised as universal requirements in order for debates to progress on mutual
However, with relatively little research commenting on global nanotechnology
developments, the true picture, with respect to developing country engagement,
remains unclear. A subsequent paper, published in this journal, will seek to
clarify: which countries are engaging with nanotechnology R&D; the general
focus of such research; who controls research in an area such as healthcare;
the orientation of health-related research; and the levels of participation
in international nanotechnology policy dialogue.
1. Court E., Daar A. S., Martin E., Acharya T. and Singer P.
A., 2004, "Will Prince Charles Et Al Diminish the Opportunities of Developing
Countries in Nanotechnology?" Accessed on: February 2004, 2004. Available:
2. ETC Group, "The Big Down: From Genomes To Atoms", ETC Group, Winnipeg,
3. Juma C. and Yee-Chong L., 2005, "Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development".
Accessed on: January 27, 2005. Available: http://bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu/BCSIA_content_stage/documents/TF-Advance2.pdf.
4. Barker T. et al., 2005, "Nanotechnology and the Poor: Opportunities
and Risks". Accessed on: January 26, 2005. Available: http://nanotech.dialoguebydesign.net/rp/NanoandPoor2.pdf.
5. Choi K., "Ethical Issues Of Nanotechnology Development in the Asia-Pacific
Region", Regional Meeting on Ethics of Science and Technology, UNESCO Regional
Unit for Social and Human Sciences in Asia and Pacific, Bangkok, pp. 327-76,
6. The Ecologist, "Promising the World, or Costing the Earth?" The
Ecologist, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 28-39, 2003.
7. ETC Group, 2004, "26 Governments Tiptoe toward Global Nano Governance:
Grey Governance". Accessed on: September 27, 2004. Available: http://www.etcgroup.org/article.asp?newsid=466.
8. Shanahan M., 2004, "Nanotech 'threatens markets for poor nations' goods'".
Accessed on: February 2, 2005. Available: http://www.scidev.net/News/index.cfm?fuseaction=readNews&item...
9. Invernizzi N. and Foladori G., 2005, "Nanotechnology as a solution to
the problems of developing countries?" Accessed on: June 17, 2005. Available:
10. Salamanca-Buentello F. et al., "Nanotechnology and the Developing World",
PLoS Medicine, 2 (4), pp. 300-03, 2005.
11. Bruntland G. (Ed.), Our common future: The World Commission on Environment
and Development, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987.
12. World Health Organisation, "The World Health Report, 1997: Conquering
suffering, enriching humanity", World Health Organisation, Geneva, 1997.
13. LaVan D. A. and Langer R., Implications of Nanotechnology in the Pharmaceutics
and Medical Fields in Societal Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology:
NSET Workshop Report, edited workshop report,, Roco, M. C. and Bainbridge, W.
S. (Eds), National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia. pp. 79-83, 2001.
14. Nanoscale Science and Engineering Subcommittee, 2000, "Nanotechnology
Definition". Accessed on: September 5, 2003. Available: http://www.nano.gov/omb_nifty50.htm.
15. Drexler K. E., Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, Doubleday,
New York 1986.
16. ETC Group, "Nanotech Un-gooed! Is the Grey/Green Goo Brouhaha the Industry's
Second Blunder?" Communiqué, (80) 2003.
17. Morrison S., (date unknown), "The Emerging Nanotech Industry; Lessons
from Biotech Experience". Accessed on: December 9, 2003. Available: http://www.nanobioconvergence.org/files/sMorrison.pdf.
18. Harper T., "What is Nanotechnology?" Nanotechnology, 14 (1), p.
19. Merkle R., "It's a small, small, small, small world", MIT Technology
Review, 100 (Feb/March), pp. 25-32, 1997.
20. Railey C. J., 2004, "Fourth Asan-HMI symposium highlights nanotechnology".
Accessed on: September 9, 2004. Available: http://hmiworld.org/hmi/past_issues/Sept_Oct_2004/feature_nano.html.
21. Munroe P., 2003, "Nano, Nanotechnology (Or Nanoscience, or Nanomaterials)
at UNSW". Accessed on: November 11, 2004. Available: http://www.science.unsw.edu.au/research/nanotalk_science2.pdf.
22. Bachmann G., "IPTS-ESTO Techno-Economic Analysis Report 1999-2000",
Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Spain, 2000.
23. Roco M. C., "International Strategy for Nanotechnology Research and
Development", Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 3 (5-6), pp. 353-60, 2001.
24. Mooney P., "The ETC Century Erosion, Technological Transformation and
Corporate Concentration in the 21st Century", Development Dialogue, 1999
(1-2), pp. 1-128, 1999.
25. South African Nanotechnology Initiative, "South African Nanotechnology
Strategy Volume 1 Draft 1.4", South African Nanotechnology Initiative,
26. Brown M. M., Foreword in Human Development Report: Making new technologies
work for human development, United Nations Development Programme (Ed.), Oxford
University Press, New York 2001.
27. Scott A., 2003, "Nanotechnology and Nanoscience". Accessed on:
February 17, 2004. Available: http://www.nanotec.org.uk/evidence/77aAndrewScott.htm.
28. The Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, "Nanoscience and
Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties", The Royal Society and
Royal Academy of Engineering, London, 2004.
29. Dayrit F. M. and Enriquez E. P., Nanotechnology Issues for Developing Economies
(revised) (essay), Philippines, 2001.
30. National Science Foundation, Sri Lanka, "Cutting-edge technology and
developing countries", Techwatch Lanka, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 1, 2002.
31. Tegart G., "Nanotechnology The Technology for the 21st Century",
APEC Center for Technology Foresight, Bangkok, 2001.
32. South African Nanotechnology Initiative, "National Nanotechnology Strategy:
Nanowonders - Endless Possibilities, Volume 1, Draft 1.5", South African
Nanotechnology Initiative and the Department of Science and Technology, Pretoria,
33. Scott J., 2002, "New Technologies 'Central to Sustainable Development'".
Accessed on: September 1, 2004. Available: http://www.scidev.net/News/index.cfm?fuseaction=readnews&itemid=163&language=1.
34. UNCTAD, 2004, "Interactive Dialogue on Harnessing Emerging Technologies
to Meet the Millennium Development Goals". Accessed on: September 3, 2004.
35. Harper T., 2003, "Nanotechnology in Kabul? Taking the First Steps".
Accessed on: October 10, 2003. Available: http://www.nanotechweb.org/articles/column/2/8/2/1.
36. Salvarezza R. C., "Why Is Nanotechnology Important For Developing Countries?"
Third Session of the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge
and Technology, UNESCO, Rio De Janeiro, pp. 133-36, 2003.
37. Mahajan R., 2005, "North South Dialogue on Nanotechnology: Challenges
and Opportunities". Accessed on: April 1, 2005. Available: http://www.ics.trieste.it/Documents/Downloads/df2682.pdf.
38. WHO Global Tuberculosis Program, "Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance
in the world: third global report", World Health Organisation, Geneva,
39. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa, 2005, "New
nanodrug carriers to target TB sufferers". Accessed on. Available: http://www.csir.co.za/plsql/ptl0002/PTL0002_PGE128_NEWSLETTER?PUBLICATION_NO=1910024.
40. The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, "Executive
Summary of Meeting Report "Diagnosis of Tuberculosis: Countdown to New
Tools" Geneva, Switzerland, 29-30 June 2000", UNDP/WORLD BANK/WHO,
41. World Health Organisation, 2005, "Global tuberculosis control: surveillance,
planning, financing". Accessed on: May 20, 2005. Available: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2005/pdf/India.pdf.
42. The Press Trust of India, 2003, "In The News - TB News". Accessed
on: March 10, 2004. Available: http://www.stoptb.org/material/news/press/pti_030416.htm.
43. The Times of India, 2004, "CSIO Develops Nanotechnology for TB Diagnostic
Kit". Accessed on: February 21, 2004. Available: http://www1.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/401636.cms.
44. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, 2003, "Faster Test for
Tuberculosis". Accessed on: December 20, 2003. Available: http://www.doemedicalsciences.org/abt/projects/tbtest.shtml.
45. Walsh M., 2004, "Nanoscale Particle Systems Suitable for New Microdevices
and Bio-Diagnostics". Accessed on: November 16, 2004. Available: http://www.rmit.edu.au/browse/Our%20Organisation%2FResearch%2FVRII%2FInformation%20and%20Communication%20Technology%20(ICT)%20VRII/#5.
46. Khuller G. K. and Pandey R., "Sustained Release Drug Delivery Systems
in Management of Tuberculosis", Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci, 45, pp.
47. Liu Y., Tsapis N. and Edwards D. A., "Investigating Sustained-release
Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery", Harvard University, Cambridge,
48. Maruping P., 2005, "South African Nanotechnology Strategy". Accessed
on: March 12, 2005. Available: http://www.ics.trieste.it/Documents/Downloads/df2680.pdf.
49. Khuller G. K., "Subcutaneous nanoparticle-based antitubercular chemotherapy
in experimental model", Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 54 (1),
pp. 266-68, 2004.
50. Biosante Pharmaceuticals, 2002, "Biosante Pharmaceuticals Announces
Positive Trial Results for Tuberculosis Vaccine". Accessed on: April 7,
2004. Available: http://www.biosantepharma.com/newshtml/020515pr.html.
51. Starpharma Ltd, 2004, "Product Focus: Vivagel... Applying Dendrimer
Nanotechnology to Prevent HIV and Other STDs". Accessed on: September 20,
2004. Available: http://www.starpharma.com/PDFs/Product%20Focus%20-%20VivaGel.pdf.
52. Fifis T. et al., "Size-Dependent Immunogenicity: Therapeutic and Protective
Properties of Nano-Vaccines Against Tumors", The Journal of Immunology,
173 (5), pp. 3148-54, 2004.
53. de Almeida A. O., 2003, "Responses to questionnaire on nanotechnology;
Brazil". Accessed on: September 22, 2004. Available: http://www.nanotec.org.uk/evidence/brazil.htm.
54. Njemanze P. C., Receptor mediated nanoscale copolymer assemblies for diagnostic
imaging and therapeutic management of hyperlipidemia and infectious diseases
In esp@cenet, European Patent Office, 2005.
55. 55. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2004, "Efficient Filters Produced
from Carbon Nanotubes". Accessed on: April 10, 2005. Available: http://www.physorg.com/news803.html.
56. Haum R., Petschow U. and Steinfeldt M., "Nanotechnology and Regulation
within the framework of the Precautionary Principle. Final Report for ITRE Committeee
of the European Parliament", Institut für ökologische Wirtschaftsforschung
(IÖW) gGmbH, Berlin, 2004.
57. Huaizhi Z. and Yuantao N., "China's ancient gold drugs", Gold
Bulletin, 34 (1), pp. 24-29, 2001.
58. Hoet P. H. M., Nemmar A. and Nemery B., "Health Impact of Nanomaterials?"
Nature Biotechnology, 22 (1), p. 19, 2004.
59. Wilsdon J. and Willis R., 2004, "Will nanotechnology go the GM way?"
Accessed on: September 15, 2004. Available: http://www.thehindu.com/thehindu/seta/2004/09/09/stories/2004090900031400.htm.
60. Moore R., 2004, "Medical nanotechnology: a new challenge for standardization?"
Accessed on: March 23, 2005. Available: http://www.iso.org/iso/en/domains/WSC-MedTech/pdf/presentations/18%20Richard%20Moore.pdf.
61. Leahy S., 2004, "'Nano Divide' No Small Matter". Accessed on:
February 27, 2004. Available: http://www.ipsnews.net/interna.asp?idnews=22193.
62. Whittingham J. and Bateman A., 2003 "???" Accessed on: May 25,
2004. Available: www.world-nano.com/WNEC_London.pdf.
63. Hamdan H., 2003, "Nanotech Initiative in Malaysia (Part 1)". Accessed
on: May 30, 2004. Available: http://www.nanoworld.jp/apnw/articles/library/pdf/17.pdf.
64. Mnyusiwalla A., Daar A. S. and Singer P. A., "'Mind the gap': science
and ethics in nanotechnology", Nanotechnology, 14, pp. R9-R13, 2003.
65. McArthur J. W. and Sachs J. D., "The Growth Competitiveness Index:
Measuring Technological Advancement and the Stages of Development", 2001.
66. Henderson R., 2002, "The Next Technological Revolution: Predicting
the Technical Future and its Impacts on Firms, Organisations and Ourselves".
Accessed on. Available: mitsloan.mit.edu/50th/tech.pdf.
67. Patil R., 2005, "If Tomorrow Comes". Accessed on: February 3,
2005. Available: http://www.indianexpress.com/full_story.php?content_id=62323.
68. Kalam A. A. P. J., 2004, "Our Future Lies in Nanotechnology".
Accessed on: September 1, 2004. Available: Our Future Lies in Nanotechnology.
69. Huang Z., Chen H., Chen Z.-K. and Roco M. C., "International nanotechnology
development in 2003: Country, institution, and technology field analysis based
on USPTO patent database", Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 6, pp. 325-54,
70. Xinhua News Agency, 2003, "China's nanotechnology patent applications
rank third in the world". Accessed on: January 27, 2004. Available: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-10/03/content_269182.htm.
71. Heines H., 2003, "Patent Trends in Nanotechnology". Accessed on:
December 3, 2003. Available: http://library.lp.findlaw.com/articles/file/00315/009269/title/Subject/topic/Intellectual%20Property_Actions%20and%20Proceedings/filename/intellectualproperty_2_4490.
72. Nordan M. M. et al., "The Nanotech Report 2004™", Lux Research
Inc., New York, 2004.
73. 73. ETC Group, 2002, "Patenting Elements of Nature". Accessed
on: August 1, 2004. Available: http://www.etcgroup.org/documents/nanopatentsgeno.rtf.pdf.
74. Kalaugher L., 2004, "Nanoparticles Clean Up Arsenic". Accessed
on: December 23, 2004. Available: http://www.nanotechweb.org/articles/news/3/5/15/1.
75. Cientifica Ltd, 2004, "Nanowater: Technology Helping the Environment".
Accessed on: September 1, 2004. Available: http://www.nanowater.org.
76. Biowatch South Africa, 2002, "The Cape Town Declaration". Accessed
on: September 29, 2004. Available: http://www.biowatch.org.za/ctdecform.htm.
Donald C. Maclurcan
Institute for Nanoscale Technology, University of Technology, Sydney
PO Box 123, Broadway
a 8 goals set by all U.N. Member
States pertaining to: eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; achievement
of universal primary education; promotion of gender equity and empowerment of
women; reduction in child mortality; improvement of maternal health; combating
of HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases; ensuring of environmental sustainability;
and development of a global partnership for development, by 2015 (see http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
for greater detail).
b Most commonly defined as being, "development
that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs" .
c The hypothetical, end-of-the-world scenario in
which self-replicating, omnivorous nanoscale robots create global ecophagy.
d 1-100 nanometres , with 1 nanometre equal to
1 billionth of a metre.
e All monetary figures in this paper refer to U.S.
f According to the South African Nanotechnology Initiative,
nanotechnology sectors can be classified into 'industrial' and 'social development',
with the latter incorporating: energy; water; and health. 'The environment'
crosses both sectors .
g Considering their well-known toxicological studies
on nanoparticles within fish, Dupont is a notable exception.
h In this paper, the term: 'South' or 'Southern'
is used to refer to developing countries, whilst the term: 'North' or 'Northern'
is used to refer to developed countries.
i See www.nanowater.com
for a full list of speakers and conference agenda.