Categories of Nanomaterials - A Simple Look at the Different Ways of Categorising Nanomaterials

Topics Covered

Background

Categories of Nanomaterials

Nanoparticles

Nanofibres and Nanotubes

Nanofilms

Nanoblocks

Nanocrystalline Alloys

Nanocomposites

Nanocrystalline Solids

Background

Nanotechnology means technology at the nanometer scale that is measured in billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology is a powerful tool for precise positioning of atoms and molecules. It allows construction of a wide range of artifacts where components may be measured in nanometres.

Categories of Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials may be classified into the following categories:

•        Nanoparticles

•        Nanofibres and Nanotubes

•        Nanofilms

•        Nanoblocks

•        Nanocrystalline alloys

•        Nanocomposites

•        Nanocrystalline solids

Nanoparticles

Submicron or ultra micron size particles available as high performance magnetic recording materials, magnetic fluid materials, randiant resistant materials, packaging materials and solar battery material.

Nanofibres and Nanotubes

Nanometer size long linear material, microconductors, microfibres, optical materials, nanotubes of PTFE, PET, PEEK (10 nm dia).

Nanofilms

Films used as gas catalyst materials.

Nanoblocks

Nanometer crystalline grain materials made by high precision forming nanoparticles or controlled crystallization.

Nanocrystalline Alloys

Alloys that have a majority of grain diameters in the typical range from 1 to 50 nm.

Nanocomposites

Composite materials which utilize nanoscale reinforcements instead of conventional particulates or fibres. Example: SiCp(Al) nanocomposite.

Nanocrystalline Solids

They are polycrystals the size of which is 1-10 nm so that 50% or more of the solid consists of inherent interface between crystals of different orientation. Clusters formed by homogeneous nucleation and grow by coalescence and incorporation of atoms. They display properties different from both the smaller atoms or molecules and the larger bulk materials.

Nanocrystalline materials have been synthesized by several techniques such as inert gas condensating, electrodeposition, sputtering and mechanical attrition.

Primary author: Dr. Zaki Ahmad

Source: Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

 

Date Added: Aug 24, 2006 | Updated: Jun 11, 2013
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