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Cerium Oxide - NanoArc® Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials From Nanophase Technologies Corporation

Topics Covered

Integrated Family of Technologies
     Fuel Cells
     UV-Attenuating Coatings
      Environmental Catalysts
     Glass Polishing
     Semiconductor Polishing
Products, Data and Specifications
Typical Properties
Cerium Oxide Dispersions
     NanoTek® CE-6000 Series Cerium Oxide Dispersions for Polishing
     NanoTek® CE-6042, 18wt% 0311
     NanoTek® CE-6044, 18wt% Pending
     NanoTek® CE-6080, 20wt% 0315
     NanoTek® CE-6082, 18wt% 0314
     NanoTek® CE-6086, 18wt% EXP 0333

Integrated Family of Technologies

As a leader in the field of nanomaterials technologies, Nanophase has evolved from solely a producer of nanoparticles into an integrator of commercially scaled nanomaterial technologies focused on market and customer applications. Nanophase Technologies Corporation manufactures a variety of nanocrystalline powders in commercial quantities. The nanocrystalline metal oxides typically have a mean particle size less than 100 nm, are non-porous single crystals, have defined surface chemistry, and are chemically pure. Further modification of these materials often involves vapor-phase coating to prepare a surface-modified dry powder, or liquid phase processing to prepare a dispersion that is compatible with the application. Nanophase’s family of integrated technologies economically produces nanocrystalline materials and then nanoengineers those materials to fit customer’s needs.

Figure 1. Nanophase development process

Nanophase’s development process is designed to produce the most advantageous nanomaterials solution for an application. The foundation technologies are the patented Physical Vapor Synthesis (PVS) process and patent pending NanoArc® Synthesis (NAS) process. These processes use plasma energy to produce pure, non-agglomerated, non-porous, single-phase metal and mixed metal oxide nanoparticles at annual capacities measured in tens of thousands of kilograms per reactor. Nanoparticle size and surface chemistry can be tailored for applications as the nanomaterial is produced.

Fuel Cells

It has been reported that the use of rare earth metal oxides has utility in various aspects of fuel cell design, but especially as components in electrodes and as low-temperature electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). NanoArc® Cerium Oxide and mixed rare earth metal oxides have shown promise in testing for such applications. Special formulations of mixed rare earth metal oxides can be commercially manufactured according to development partner or customer requirements, an example of which is a range of Cerium Oxide samaria nanomaterials made specifically for a fuel cell application. Nanophase has also developed patent pending technology for applying these and other nanoparticle coatings using standard high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray equipment.

UV-Attenuating Coatings

The incorporation of nanomaterials in surface coatings can provide long-term protection from harmful UV radiation in harsh environments without significantly effecting optical clarity, gloss, color or physical properties. Degradation of substrates through exposure to ultraviolet light is an old problem, but now there is a new and permanent solution. Whether the substrate is metal (automotive clear-coats), glass (windows and architectural glazing) or polymeric (plastic sheets and building products), UV attenuation may be critical to the long-term performance of the substrate or items that the substrate protects. Incorporation of NanoTek® Cerium Oxide into clear surface coatings can help to attenuate unwanted UV light without significantly sacrificing clarity, gloss or physical properties. Additionally, the NanoDur® products will not wear out over time as organic UV absorbers do, and they can withstand high temperatures and harsh conditions during processing without being deactivated. The NanoTek® products can also be surface treated through proprietary technology to ensure compatibility with a variety of coating systems.

Environmental Catalysts

The use of nanomaterials based on rare earth metal oxides allows for the preparation of thinner active layers, which can mean less precious metal usage. These nanomaterials also allow for the preparation of higher solids dispersions that are very stable, minimizing the number of coating steps and losses due to flocculated dispersions. Automotive catalytic converters are a key focus area for catalyst performance. While government regulations continue to drive lower acceptable emissions levels of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, automotive companies are attempting to lower the use of precious metals, such as platinum, palladium and rhodium, in the catalytic converter to lower cost while meeting the more stringent performance standards. Diesel engines are beginning to be subject to similar regulations as gasoline engines.

One way to achieve lower emissions in a cost effective manner is to utilize co-catalysts that provide good oxygen storage capability and thermal stability in thinner layers. NanoTek® Cerium Oxide and mixed rare earth metal oxides meet the criteria necessary to enhance catalytic converter performance when properly incorporated into a catalyst system, and because they are dense, single phase individual crystals, there is nothing to collapse during thermal cycling. The same materials can be used in other types of environmental catalysts, such as exhaust converters for stationary and large internal combustion engines, chemical scrubbers and for other gaseous products and waste streams.

Glass Polishing

For many years cerium oxide dispersed in water, has been and continues to be, the best polishing material for glass with respect to surface finish and removal rate. Nanophase’s brand of Cerium Oxide and mixed rare earth metal oxides provide the next level of performance for ultra fine polishing applications.

These unique dispersions provide minimal subsurface damage with maximum removal rates. In critical applications, such as photomasks and disk drives, surface roughness values of less than 3 angstroms have been achieved with our Cerium Oxide dispersion.

Semiconductor Polishing

As the semiconductor industry continues to move forward to smaller chip architecture, the need for advanced CMP slurries becomes a requirement that cannot be met by the slurries provided in the past. Nanophase’s brand of Cerium Oxide and mixed rare earth metal oxide dispersions are on the forefront of providing high planarity surfaces and efficient removal rates.

These high purity dispersions feature particles less than 100 nanometers in size with uniform morphology for critical electronic polishing applications. The unique surface chemistry of these nanomaterials allows formulation of highly concentrated dispersions at a variety of pH.

Products, Data and Specifications

Figure 2. NanoTek® Cerium Oxide

Typical Properties

  • CeO2
  • Purity = 99+%,
  • APS 48 nm (determined from  SSA)
  • SSA = 12 – 36 m2/g (BET)
  • Appearance = Pale yellow liquids

Cerium Oxide Dispersions

Nanophase has worked diligently for years to develop expertise in dispersing nanomaterials in water, polar organics and non-polar organics.  We offer most of our products in one or more standard dispersions.  We also offer the service of dispersing a nanomaterial in the bulk medium of your choice as long as it is of low viscosity, non toxic, and has a flash point greater than 100°F.

NanoTek® CE-6000 Series Cerium Oxide Dispersions for Polishing

NanoTek® CE-6042, 18wt% 0311

Cerium oxide water borne dispersion is suitable for use in acid side ultra fine polishing slurries.

NanoTek® CE-6044, 18wt% Pending

Cerium oxide water borne dispersion is suitable for use in acid side ultra fine polishing slurries.  Same average particle size, but tighter particle size distribution than 6042.

NanoTek® CE-6080, 20wt% 0315

Cerium oxide water borne dispersion is suitable for use in alkaline side polishing slurries.  Sub micron particle size makes for good removal rate with minimal subsurface damage

NanoTek® CE-6082, 18wt% 0314

Cerium oxide water borne dispersion is suitable for use in alkaline side ultra fine polishing slurries.

NanoTek® CE-6086, 18wt% EXP 0333

Cerium oxide water borne dispersion with polishing performance additives is suitable for use in alkaline or acid side ultra fine polishing slurries.

Date Added: Sep 14, 2006 | Updated: Jun 11, 2013
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