Graphene Oxide – Properties and Practical Applications

By AZoNano

Table of Contents

Introduction
Graphene Oxide
Manufacture of Graphene Oxide
Applications of Graphene Oxide
Transparent Conductive Films
Composites and Paper-like Materials
Energy-Related Materials
Applications in Biology and Medicine
     Antibacterial Materials
Surfactant
Summary
About Graphene Supermarket

Introduction

Graphene is a single or multi layer sheet of graphite that plays a major role in advanced, cost-effective carbon-based flexible and transparent electronics. Graphene has significantly high-strength, high-transparency, is flexible and is a superior thermal and electric conductor. Industrialists are endeavoring to discover cost-effective methods to manufacture bulk quantities of graphene for commercial applications.

Graphene Oxide

Graphene Oxide is a single-atomic-layered material made by oxidizing graphite crystals that are available in large quantities at inexpensive prices. Since graphene oxide can be dispersed in water, it is convenient to process. One of the first commercially available graphene materials is graphene oxide which is available from Graphene Supermarket. The major application areas of Graphene Oxide are discussed in subsequent sections below.

Manufacture of Graphene Oxide

Graphene Oxide is formed by oxidizing crystalline graphite with a mixture of sodium nitrate, sulfuric acid, and potassium permanganate. The oxidation method is also known as the Hummers method. Structurally, the Graphene Oxide is similar to a graphene sheet with its base having oxygen-containing groups. Since these groups have an high affinity to water molecules, Graphene Oxide is hydrophilic and can be easily dissolved in water. This property of solubility in water ensures that the thin film deposition of Graphene Oxide is very straightforward. Graphene Oxide is a poor conductor but when it undergoes treatment using heat, light, or chemical reduction, most of graphene's properties are restored. Chemical reduction is normally done using hydrazine. Other green methods are also available to reduce graphene oxide that include introduction of bacteria containing cytochromes.

Applications of Graphene Oxide

Graphene oxide finds application in the following fields:

  • Transparent conductive films
  • Paper-like and composite materials
  • Energy-related materials
  • Biological and medical applications

Transparent Conductive Films

Graphene Oxide finds application mainly in the fabrication of transparent conductive films. It is possible to deposit Graphene Oxide films on any substrate, and then convert it into a conductor. These coatings may be used in solar cells, flexible electronics, chemical sensors, liquid crystal devices, and as an indium tin-oxide (ITO) replacement. ITO is the present material of choice for touch screen devices.

Composites and Paper-like Materials

Graphene Oxide can blend easily with a number of polymers, forming nanocomposites, and greatly improves the characteristics such as tensile strength, elastic modulus, thermal stability and electrical conductivity of the original polymer. Graphene Oxide flakes in its solid state may affix to each other forming highly stable and thin paper-like structures that can be wrinkled, folded and stretched. Such free-standing Graphene Oxide films are considered for applications such as ion conductors, hydrogen storage applications, and nanofiltration membranes.

Energy-Related Materials

Graphene Oxide and its reduced forms have a very high surface area. This high surface area enables these materials to be used as electrode materials in double-layered capacitors and batteries as well as solar cells and fuel cells. Graphene Oxide manufacture can be easily done in bulk quantities when compared to other graphene materials, and hence may soon be utilized for energy-related purposes. Its hydrogen-storage ability may in the future may find application in hydrogen fuel storage in hybrid cars. Graphene Supermarket offers Reduced Graphene Oxide with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) with a surface area of around 833 m2/g.

Applications in Biology and Medicine

Graphene Oxide has been discovered to be fluorescent and hence can be used in biosensing, assisting in finding cure for cancer, early detection of disease. Graphene Oxide has also been used in fluorescent-based biosensors in order to detect proteins and DNA, with a promise of better HIV diagnostics. Additionally, Graphene Oxide is tested as a drug carrier. It is superior to several other anticancer drugs since it does not target healthy cells, only tumors, and has a low toxicity.

Antibacterial Materials

The growth of E. Coli bacteria may be reduced when disrupted by Graphene Oxide. Since Graphene Oxide fabrication is inexpensive, it may be produced in bulk when its applications become commercial. This will enable more opportunities for developing antibacterial materials, and may help in healing wounds by destroying bacteria. These materials can also be made into a thin paper used for packaging meats, which will be more sanitary than present packaging techniques.

Surfactant

Graphene oxide can also act as a surfactant, similar to how soap or shampoo can make a stain disperse in water. This characteristic can be used as an agent for dispersion of insoluble materials such as carbon nanotubes.

Summary

Graphene Oxide has great potential, and is commercially available at affordable prices due to the inexpensive methods of production.

About Graphene Supermarket

The goal of Graphene Supermarket is to provide laboratory supplies for graphene community. Graphene Supermarket’s philosophy is to offer quality products, hassle-free shopping, easy order tracking, and fast delivery. They have straightforward pricing, online shipping quote and checkout. They also have have no minimum order requirement for your convenience.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Graphene Supermarket.

For more information on this source, please visit Graphene Supermarket.

Date Added: Oct 3, 2011 | Updated: Jun 11, 2013
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