Table of ContentsOverviewProperties
of Aluminium Doped Zinc Oxide TargetsProperties of AZO
Sputtered FilmsApplications Photovoltaic ApplicationsAbout INNOVNANO
is a high purity nanostructured aluminium doped zinc oxide with typical
aluminium content between 0.5 to 2 wt%. Innovnano
also offers custom combinations. The Aluminium doping causes the material to
develop distinct properties that ensure that the product is suitable for
transparent conductive thin films for use in this film photovoltaic applications
such as CIGS, Cd-Te, amorphous silicon-Si and microcrystalline solar cells.
Innovnano processes the high purity AZO powder into dense sputter coating targets for
photovoltaic manufacturers to use in the manufacture of transparent conductive
oxide layers. Their process produces nano-sized powders that sinter at lower
temperatures, enabling them to maintain their small grain size and uniform
distribution of aluminium in the zinc oxide matrix.
Properties of Aluminium Doped Zinc Oxide Targets
The properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide sputter targets for photovoltaics
and glass are shown in the table below:
||RF, DC |
||0.5 - 2.0 wt% |
|Electrical Resistivity (bulk)
||< 5 x 10-3 ohm.cm |
|Average Grain Size
||< 5 μm|
Dark green |
Innovnano AZO sputter targets exhibit a homogenous grain
structure which leads to consistent and high quality sputtering performance.
Figure 1. Typical SEM image of the surface of Innovnano
AZO sintered target.
Properties of AZO Sputtered Films
AZO thin films are electrically conductive and exhibit high
levels of transmittance in the visible region and usable transmission to IR
wavelengths up to 12μm. AZO offers an viable alternative to other materials such
as indium tin oxide (ITO) for reasons such as:
- Lower cost
- Increased abundance
- High thermal stability
Figure 2. SEM image of sputtered AZO film on glass.
Figure 3. Transmittance of an AZO thin film on glass.
films have the potential to be used in:
- Solar cells
- LCD electrodes
- Touchscreen transparent contacts
- Flat panel displays
- IR windows
In CIGS and Cd-Te solar cells, the AZO materials are deposited in the module
stack as a transparent front contact on top of the absorber and intermediate
layers. In contrast, the AZO is used to deposit reflective layers on the substrate or
transparent conducting oxide in the top layer in amorphous silicon-Si and
When used in the top layer important properties of the AZO layer
- High transparency in the VIS/near IR spectrum
- A surface texture that promotes light scattering and absorption within the
- Excellent chemical stability
- Excellent bonding to silicon
INNOVNANO (part of CUF, the largest Portuguese chemical
group), with its corporate Headquarter located in Lisbon, has developed a unique
and innovative proprietary patented process. The process is defined as
high-pressure semi continuous process for the large-scale production of
nanomaterials and advanced ceramic powders.
Using this technology INNOVNANO is able to produce commercial quantities of metal
oxides, doped metal oxides, and composite nanoparticles in the range of 20 nm to
This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from
materials provided by INNOVNANO.
For more information on this source, please visit INNOVNANO.