Aluminium/Aluminum Nanoparticles - Properties, Applications

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Manufacturing Process
Applications

Introduction

Nanoparticle research is an area of strong scientific interest due to the variety of potential applications in optical, biomedical, and electronic fields. In the last 10 years, aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles have been widely researched and used, primarily because of their increased reactivity as compared with conventional micron-sized particle.

Aluminium/aluminum (Al) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 3 element. The morphology of these particles is spherical and they appear as black or grey-black powder.

Care must be taken when handling metal nanopowders, so as to avoid any strong vibration or friction. Aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles are highly reactive, so measures should also be taken to protect the material from moisture, heat, and sunlight. These particles should be sealed in vacuum and stored in a cool and dry room.

Chemical Properties

The chemical properties of aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.

Chemical Data
Chemical Symbol Al
CAS No. 7429-90-5
Group 13
Electronic configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1

Physical Properties

The physical properties of aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 2.70 g/cm3 0.0975 lb/in3
Molar mass 26.98 g/mol -

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles are provided in the table below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Melting point 660.32 °C 1220.58 °F
Boiling point 2519 °C 4566.2 °F

Manufacturing Process

Aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles are produced using the laser evaporation process. Using high purity aluminium/aluminum as raw material, high active aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles of high purity and small particle size, can be produced in large quantities at low cost.

Applications

Aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles are highly effective catalysts. When they are added into solid rocket fuel, it helps improve combustion speed and considerably increases combustion heat and combustion stability. The burning rate of solid propellant can be 5-20 times higher using aluminium/aluminum nanopowders compared to powders with larger particle sizes.

Adding about 5-10% of aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles into normal aluminium/aluminum powder improves the sintering processes of ceramics, with high heat-transfer performance, increased density, and enhanced the thermal conductivity of sinter. Aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles have good sintering ability even under low temperatures due to the large surface and superficial atom ratio.

Aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles are also used in the following additional applications:

  • Dispersion-strengthening
  • Nanocomposites
  • Catalyst support
  • Transparent conductive coatings
  • Biomaterials
  • Heat-transfer fluids (suspensions)
  • Drug delivery
  • Sources for IC board or package
  • Transparent optical coatings
  • Wear-resistant additives
  • Material surface coatings

Source: AZoNano

Date Added: Mar 19, 2013 | Updated: Sep 10, 2013
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