Copper, Indium, and Gallium in Sputtering Targets

By AZoM.com Staff Writers

Table of Content

Introduction
Sputter Deposition
Sputtering Target of Metals
Applications of Sputtering Process
Conclusion
About Nanoshel

Introduction

Sputtering is a unique and repeatable process and has the ability to deposit thin films from a range of materials on to different shapes and sizes of substrates. The process can be upgraded from research and development projects to manufacturing of batches involving medium to large substrate areas.

Sputter Deposition

In order to realize efficient momentum, transfer projectile mass must be able to match target mass. Therefore, for sputtering heavy elements xenon or krypton is used and for light elements neon is utilized. Generally, sputtering gas is an inert gas, such as argon. A typical sputtering process is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Sputtering process

Normally, reactive gases are utilized for sputtering compounds. The chemical reaction can take place on the substrate or on the target surface depending on the parameters of the process. These parameters make sputter deposition a challenging process, but nevertheless provide experts a greater level of control over the microstructure and growth of the film.

In order to obtain the required characteristics in a sputter deposited thin film, the production process utilized to build the sputtering target can be of significant importance. Regardless of the fact that the target material has an element, mixture of elements, compound, or alloys, the process undertaken to create that defined material, which is ideal for sputtering thin films of uniform quality, is equally important as the deposition run parameters perfected by scientists and engineers dealing in thin film processes.

Sputtering Target of Metals

Figure 2. Metals and alloys

Fiogure 2 shows different types of metals and alloys, such as Copper, Indium, Gallium, etc. Sputtering target of pure metals, compounds and alloys are given in the tables below.

Table 1. Properties of Nanoshel pure metal sputtering targets

Pure Metal Sputtering Targets
Ag Silver 99.99%
Al Aluminium 99.5%-99.999%
Au Gold 99.9%, 99.99%
C Graphite 99.99%
Cr Chromium 99.5%-99.95%
Cu Copper 99.9%, 99.99%
Hf Hafnium 99.90%
In Indium 99.99%
Mg Magnesium 99.95%
Mo Molybdenum 99.95%
Nb Niobium 99.9%
Ni Nickel 99.9%-99.995%
Si Si mono-/polycrystalline 99.99%, 99.999%
Sn Tin 99.9%
Ta Tantalum 99.95%
Ti Titanium 99.6%-99.99%
V Vanadium 99.5%, 99.9%
W Tungsten 99.95%
Zn Zinc 99.99%
Zr Zirconium 99.2%, Zr702

Table 2. Properties of Nanoshel compound sputtering targets

Compound Sputtering Targets
AI203 Aluminium Oxide 99.9%, 99.99%
Hf02 Hafnium Oxide 99.99%
ITO Indium Tin Oxide 99.99%, 90:1 Owt%
Nb205 Niob Pentoxide 99.9%
MoS2 Molydisulfid 99.5%
SiC Silicon Carbide 99.5%-99.9%
Si02 Silicon Dioxide 99.5%-99.99%
TiOx Titanium Dioxide 99.90%
305 Titanium Pentoxide 99.90%
AI203 Aluminium 99.90%-99.99%
+ZnO Zinc 99.90%-99.99%
(ZAO) Oxide 99.90%-99.99%
ZnOx Tin Oxide 99.99%

Table 3. Properties of Nanoshel alloy sputtering targets

Alloy Sputtering Targets
Al Ti Aluminium-Titanium 99.8%-99.9%
AlCr Aluminium+Chromium 99.9%-99.95%
AITISI Aluminium+Titanium+Si licon 99.9%
Cu+Ni Copper+Nickel 99.9%
CuAl Copper+Aluminium 99.9%
NbZr Niobium+Zirconium 99.5%
NbTi Niobium+Titanium 99.9 %
Ni+Cr Nickel+Chnomium 99.8%-99.91*&
Ni+V Nickel+Vanadium 99.95%
Si Al Silicon+Aluminium 99.9%
TiAl Trtamum+Aluminium 99.5%-99.8%
ZnAl Zinc+Aluminium 99.95%
ZnSn Zlnc+Tin 99.9%

Applications of Sputtering Process

Sputtering process is used in a variety of applications such as flat panel displays, optical discs, automotive and architectural glass, web coating, hard coatings, optical communications, solar cells, semiconductors, magnetic data storage devices, electron microscopy, and decorative applications.

Typical materials used in these applications are Copper, Chromium, Chromium-Molybdenum, Aluminium, Titanium, Aluminium-Titanium, Tungsten, Nickel, Silicon, Indium and Silver, amongst others.

Conclusion

Sputtering process can be used for depositing thin films from a wide range of materials on to different substrates. Although process parameters make sputtering a complex process, they allow a greater degree of control over the film’s growth and structure.

About Nanoshel

NANOSHEL makes more than 50 types of products, among which the main products are nanotubes, SWCNT's, MWCNT's, and nanoparticles. These products are widely used in the fields such as textile industry, ceramics, chemical fiber, plastics, coatings, cosmetics, rubber, electrical and electronic equipments, electric power generation and boiler and so on.

Through providing the customers with nanomaterials and the application process solution, the company commits itself to assist clients to improve the functionality and technology content of the products so that the clients can promote their product added-values and market competitive competencies, keep their creative advantages for a long time in the concerned fields and make good economic benefits.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Nanoshel.

For more information on this source, please visit Nanoshel.

Date Added: Oct 23, 2013 | Updated: Oct 23, 2013
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