By AZoNano.com Staff Writers
Methods and Materials
About Contipro Group
Electrospinning is a comparatively simple, effective and universal fabrication method for producing nanofibres with diameters ranging from 50nm to several micrometers using polymer solution melts. Normally electrospinning devices enable the production of electrospun nanofibres from only one material. Further enhancements to the electrospinning device resulted in the production of nanofibrous with different types of polymers improving their material properties.
A new desktop laboratory apparatus has been developed for nanofibre production from the solutions of synthetic and natural polymers. The 4SPIN® device features five types of emitters for composite materials that can be used for simultaneous electrospinning of two or three different polymer types on the same collector. A needle jet emitter is the simplest method to be used. It forms a high gradient electrostatic field around the drop of the polymer solution leading to very high spinnability.
Figure 1. A modified electrospinning set-up with a rotating drum collector was applied. The revolutions of the drum were set to 500 rpm.
Another technique is needleless electrospinning, a process capable of scaling up the nanofibrous material production. To obtain homogeneously mixed nanofibrous layers, nanofibrescan bed directly collected on a rotating drum. A coaxial single needle jet is another advanced type of the 4SPIN® emitter. By using the coaxial electrospinning method, one can produce hollow fibres and even core materials that will not form fibres via electrospinning.
Figure 2. Absorption spectra obtained from nanofibrous layers separately from PVA with Brilliant Blue (BB), PVA with Erythrosin (Er) and their composite material fabricated on the drum collector (A, B, C).
Methods and Materials
Electrospinning of all nanomaterials was done with the new types of emitters of the 4SPIN® technology.
The following six polymers were used to prepare composite nanomaterials:
polyethylene oxide (PEO)
hyaluronic acid/polyethylene oxide blends (HA/PEO)
Electrospinning or electrospraying methods were used to prepare composite nanostructures based on the concentration of the polymer solution used. A rotating drum collector was used to collect the nanofibres. The jets must be behind each other on the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the drum collector. By determining the absorption spectra of its individual components, the homogeneity of polymer distribution in a nanofibrous layer is verified. By adding the brilliant blue dye of absorbance 570nm and erythrosine 530nm the two PVA solutions were prepared.
Figure 3. Nanofibrous materials from PVA with the Brilliant Blue dye and with Erythrosin deposited on the static continual (on the left) and rotating drum collector (on the right).
Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used to non-invasively determined chemical composition of the resulting material. Confocal Raman arrangement enables detection of fine elastically scattered radiation from a selected area on the surface of the sample.
Spectral differences can indicate spatial distribution of the individual components of composite nanofibrous layers.
Figure 4. Raman spectra of PCL and PEO representing the main differences between the polymers.
Figure 5. 2D maps of the fingerprint region and CH groups region of a PEO and PCL composite nanofibrous material for the sample area of (5 • 5)cm2. Theredareas are dominated by PCL, the blue areas pertain to PEO. The green colour represents the area where the sample was the same as the average spectrum from the measured spectra of polymers.
Composite nanofibrous materials composed of two or three different types of polymers were prepared using new types of emitters. Various morphologies were also achieved in the resulting materials. The homogeneity and distribution of individual components were analysed with a spectrophotometer and examined using Raman spectroscopy.
Thanks to the implemented methods and the new types of emitters the 4SPIN® device can produce composite and hybrid nanostructures which improve the material’s final quality and thus significantly helps accelerate research progress in the field of material application.
About Contipro Group
The CONTIPRO holding has been involved in the research, development and biotechnological production of active ingredients for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for over twenty years. With excellent production quality and extensive research facilities, it is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of hyaluronic acid and derived applications.
The holding places a huge emphasis on innovation and in-house research, which explains why almost half of its employees are R&D lab experts.
The oldest of the holding’s companies, Contipro Pharma, specializes in the manufacture of sodium hyaluronate pharmaceutical grade and other active substances for the pharmaceutical industry and finished pharmaceutical products made from hyaluronic acid.
Contipro Biotech, which produces hyaluronic acid cosmetic grade and other active ingredients for products to counter the effects of skin ageing, was founded in 1997.
In 2013 Contipro Biotech introduced the laboratory device for the nanofiber production - 4SPIN.
This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Contipro Group.
For more information on this source, please visit Contipro Group.