Nano Conjugates from Nanoshel for Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy

By AZoNano Staff Writers

Topics Covered

Nanoshel Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
Nano Carrier Drug Delivery Systems
Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs)
Cancer Marker with Nanotechnology
Cardiac Maker with Nano Silicon Biochips
Diabetic Marker with Nano Gold Nanoparticles
Bacterial Pathogen Detection with Nano Conjugates
About Nanoshel LLC

Nanoshel Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)

Nanoshel's carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as an innovative carrier system for therapeutic molecules. It is possible to functionalize CNTs to manipulate the physical or biological properties of these nanomaterials.

The large surface area and the option to alter the surfaces and physical dimensions of CNTs enable them to be used in the photothermal destruction of cancer cells. This article covers therapeutic applications of CNTs, especially their role in cancer treatment.

Functionalizing CNTs can improve their dispersability in the aqueous phase, or provide suitable functional groups which can bind to the desired material or target tissue, to enable or enhance a therapeutic effect.

CNTs might facilitate the penetration of the attached therapeutic molecule through the target cell for disease treatment. It is possible to bind CNTs with many different functional groups relevant to cancer therapy.

Nano Carrier Drug Delivery Systems

The key objective of designing nano-carrier drug delivery systems is to improve the therapeutic effect or lower the toxicity of therapeutically active materials. This is traditionally achieved utilizing spherically-shaped nano-vesicle carriers like liposomes.

CNTs, conversely, are cylindrical structures composed of carbon atoms, with high aspect ratios - there diameters can be as low as 1nm, and their lengths up to several micrometers.

Nanoshel offers the following nano conjugates:

Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs)

Antibody drug conjugation technology employs monoclonal antibodies or other biologics for the delivery of conjugated Highly Potent APIs (HPAPIs) to targeted cells. The HPAPI shows more selective cytotoxicity in its conjugated form, thus keeping non-target cells away from many of the toxic effects.

Figure 1 shows the emergence of cancer treatment options and Figure 2 shows how ADCs are designed to work.

Figure 1. Emergence of cancer treatment options

Figure 2. How ADCs are designed to work

Nanoshel offers the following:

  • Comprehensive analytical tests for APIs and biologics
  • Conjugation of non-potent APIs to biologic carriers such as polynucleotides and polyamino acids
  • Working with the key players in linker technology
  • Produce batches of up to 1kg to help drug development to Phases II
  • Suite committed to conjugation of HPAPIs to biologic molecules
  • Development and production of commercial scale linkers, HPAPIs, payload and conjugates

Using nanoparticles is one of the key strategies to overcome microbial drug resistance mechanisms, including intracellular bacteria, bio film formation, and reduced uptake and improved efflux of drug from the microbial cell.

In addition, nanoparticles are capable of targeting antimicrobial agents to the infection site, thus overcoming resistance by allowing higher doses of drug at the site of infection.

Coupling a tiny molecule to a protein and protein-protein conjugations such as the binding of an antibody to an enzyme are the most common bioconjugations. Some nanomolecules employed in bioconjugation include CNTs, synthetic polymers, nucleic acids and oligosaccharides.

Antibody-drug conjugates like Gemtuzumab ozogamicin and Brentuximab vedotin are also examples of bioconjugation, and are the subject of intense research in the pharmaceutical industry. Bioconjugation has also become significant in nanotechnology applications such as bio conjugated quantum dots.

Single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) can be employed in photoacoustic, NIR fluorescence, and Raman imaging of cells and animals. Efficient loading of aromatic chemotherapy drugs into SWNTs is achievable through supramolecular π-π stacking, providing an ultra-high loading capacity when compared to other drug carriers such as micelles and liposomes.

Nanoshel has devised systematic protocols for functionalization and bioconjugation of SWNTs.

Cancer Marker with Nanotechnology

The presence of cancer can be identified through testing for tumor markers, which have been used for the following applications:

  • Predict or monitor for recurrence
  • Monitor treatment
  • Guide treatment decisions
  • Predict prognosis
  • Confirm the diagnosis
  • Screen high-risk individuals

Cardiac Maker with Nano Silicon Biochips

Nanoshel has lithium ion intercalation mediated efficient exfoliation of graphite to fabricate monolithic graphene sheets and their subsequent development into highly sensitive label-free electrochemical detection platform for cardiac biomarker, Troponin I (cTnl).

The spectroscopic and morphological analysis showed the creation of zero-defect graphene sheets, which were used in the fabrication of an inter-digited micro device in a drain-source configuration on a silicon biochip.

The functionalized graphene gated biochip with anti-cTnl antibodies utilized in label free detection of cTnl has showed very high sensitivity in the pictogram range for cTnl without using any enzymatic amplification. This promises the use of the biochip for bio-molecular detection in clinical diagnosis.

Diabetic Marker with Nano Gold Nanoparticles

An ultrasensitive immunosensor system has been developed to detect specific diabetic biomarker glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc) by means of specific antibody functionalized micromechanical cantilever chips.

The biomolecules-induced deflection of the cantilever beam reveals the interaction between the increase in the strain energy of the cantilever and the reduction in the free energy of the interplay. This provides an innovative system to explore the relation between the nanomechanics and the chemistry of antibody-antigen interplay at much lower concentrations.

Site-directed antibody immobilization technique was used to functionalize the cantilevers with specific antibodies. The antibody immobilized cantilevers were utilized for detecting the level of the expressed biomarker in standard samples by implementing a label-free direct immunoassay format.

Nano conjugates available are shown in Figure 3 and analytical applications of carbon nanotubes and graphene are depicted in Figure 4.

Figure 3. Nano conjugates

Figure 4. Carbon nanotubes and graphene in analytical applications

Bacterial Pathogen Detection with Nano Conjugates

Developments in DNA sequencing technology enable rapid and efficient sequencing of complete microbial genomes, which open door for analyzing and understanding microorganism at the molecular level. The changes in gene expression in response to the invasion of pathogens facilitate the development of novel methods for microbial pathogen detection and drug development.

Identifying certain microbial pathogens as etiologic agents causing chronic diseases paves the way to new treatment methods and prevention strategies for these diseases. Pathogen detection has turned out to be a key aspect of research in several fields, including drug discovery, forensics, clinical research, pathology, diagnostics, food safety, animal healthcare, and bio defense.

About Nanoshel LLC

NANOSHEL makes more than 50 types of products, among which the main products are nanotubes, SWCNT's, MWCNT's, and nanoparticles. These products are widely used in the fields such as textile industry, ceramics, chemical fiber, plastics, coatings, cosmetics, rubber, electrical and electronic equipments, electric power generation and boiler and so on.

Through providing the customers with nanomaterials and the application process solution, the company commits itself to assist clients to improve the functionality and technology content of the products so that the clients can promote their product added-values and market competitive competencies, keep their creative advantages for a long time in the concerned fields and make good economic benefits.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Nanoshel LLC.

For more information on this source, please visit Nanoshel LLC.

Date Added: Apr 3, 2014 | Updated: Apr 7, 2014
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