Carbon (C) Nanoparticles - Properties, Applications

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Manufacturing Process
Applications

Introduction

Nanotechnology has enabled the use of engineered nanomaterials with diameters of <100 nm in industrial applications, cancer treatment, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, gene therapy, drug delivery, and many other areas. Researchers are constantly seeking novel applications using nanoparticles.

Carbon is a Block P, Period 2, nonmetallic element. It is the sixth most abundantly available element in the universe, and is commonly obtained from coal deposits. It is the second most abundant element by mass in the human body after oxygen.

The three naturally occurring allotropes of carbon are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The morphology of carbon nanoparticles is spherical, and they appear as a black powder. Carbon nanoparticles can be surface functionalized, with organic molecules or polymers chemically bound to the particle surface.

Pure carbon has very low level of toxicity to humans. However, inhalation of coal dust or soot in large quantities can be dangerous, and can cause irritation of lung tissues and a congestive lung disease called pneumoconiosis.

Chemical Properties

The chemical properties of carbon nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.

Chemical Data
Chemical symbol C
CAS No. 7440-44-0
Group 14
Electronic configuration [He] 2s2 2p2

Physical Properties

The physical properties of carbon nanoparticles are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 2.2670 g/cm3 0.0819 lb/in3
Molar mass 12.01 g/mol -

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of carbon nanoparticles are provided in the table below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Melting point 3550°C 6422°F
Boiling point 3825°C 6917°F

Manufacturing Process

Activated carbon nanopowder can be produced using a selection of high temperature superfine charcoal via special carbonization, activation, grinding and classification methods.

Activated carbon is a type of carbon that has been specifically processed to make it very porous, so that it has a very large surface area for adsorption or chemical reactions.

Applications

Carbon nanoparticles are being explored widely for use in cancer treatment. Studies reveal that cancer treatment using radio waves can heat and destroy a tumor, lymphoma, or metastasized cancer. These particles can be used in humans.

They have also been used to develop high-capacity lithium sulfur batteries. The use of a sulfur-nanocarbon electrode allows the battery call to leverage the high lithium storage capacity of sulfur atoms, whilst maintaining high electron mobility through the carbon nanoparticle matrix.

Source: AZoNano

Date Added: Mar 26, 2013 | Updated: Sep 10, 2013
Ask A Question

Do you have a question you'd like to ask regarding this article?

Leave your feedback
Submit