History, Production and Applications of Nanodiamonds

By AZoNano

Table of Contents

Introduction – Diamonds
History and Production
Properties
Applications
     Catalysts
Seeding Material for Cultivating Diamond Films
Additives to Automobile Oils
     Galvanic Coatings
     Polishing Compounds
About EMFUTUR Technologies

Introduction – Diamonds

Diamond is one of the hardest materials in the world. It is unaffected by chemical corrosion and can tolerate radiation and compressive forces. It has higher electrical resistance and better heat conductivity when compared to many other materials. It is transparent to ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, visible light, and most of the infrared spectrum. It is the ideal optical material that can transmit electromagnetic radiation from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. It demonstrates higher thermal conductivity than any other solid at room temperature. Besides high strength and rigidity, diamond has the highest atom-number density of any material.

Diamonds are naturally formed in the high temperature and pressure regions in the mantle of the earth. They are brought to the earth’s crust in rocks called as kibberlites by volcanic eruptions originating from the high temperature and pressure regions. They are then mined from the canals of the volcanoes and from adjacent glacial deposits in beaches and stream beds.

History and Production

In 1962, Russian researchers started working with nanodiamonds in order to increase the life of their tanks. They produced nanodiamonds through ‘explosion based production’ technique utilizing outdated military explosives. Nanodiamonds can be produced through the detonation of RDX and TNT, followed by the collection of the residual soot. The process of pure nanodiamond production involves the detonation of a diamond blend followed by chemical purification. The resultant residual soot actually has tiny diamonds with a size of 4-10 nm. Pilot production of nanodiamonds was begun in the end of 1980s.

Detonation of nanodiamond materials yields diamonds with different degrees of purity and with different functional groups and elements on their surface. Hence, detonation nanodiamonds demonstrate many different exotic properties.

Properties

Recent studies confirmed that it is possible to use nanodiamonds for the production of nano-composite materials, selective catalysts and adsorbents, elements of nano-electronics, and materials utilized in biology and medicine. Nanodiamonds are capable of enhancing the quality of magnetic recording systems, gum and Indian rubber, polymeric compositions, abrasive tools, lubricants, and micro-abrasive and polishing compounds.

Nanodiamonds demonstrate superior optical and mechanical properties. They have tunable surface structures and high surface areas. They are ideal for biomedical applications thanks to their non-toxicity. They have found use in applications such as tissue engineering, bioimaging, drug delivery and tribology. They can serve as a filler material for nanocomposites and as protein mimics. Moreover, nanodiamonds have many different characteristics of nanomaterials, including macroscopic quantum tunneling effect, quantum size effect, surface/interface effect, and small-size effect.

Applications

The following are some of the applications of raw diamond/graphite nanomixture and pure nanodiamonds:

Catalysts

Some forms of nanodiamonds have an intricate structure featuring a diamond nucleus and graphite-like shell with a functional cover on its surface. It is necessary to modify and activate the surface of nanodiamonds for the catalytic purposes. Nanodiamond-based catalysts have been assessed in the conversion of CO to CO2. Electrochemically modifying a saline-acid solution and improving the nanodiamond powder surface with palladium holds potential to produce electrodes and catalysts of low-temperature fuel elements.

Seeding Material for Cultivating Diamond Films

Nanodiamonds are utilized in research conducted on synthetic CVD diamond films. High density diamond nucleation centers have been created on many different substrates using ultradisperse nanodiamond suspension. These substrates are then coated by depositing high-quality doped diamond films from a gas phase of microwave discharge. Selective nucleation can produce diamond grids with different transparency. The resultant high-quality doped diamond grids show promise to be utilized as the most perspective electrodes for electrochemistry.

Additives to Automobile Oils

For lubricants, ultradisperse diamonds can yield a new class of additives, which is specially engineered to protect and restore friction units in different mechanisms and machines by optimizing protective properties and effective service life of lubricants.

Galvanic Coatings

Nanodiamonds can be utilized as an additive to metal galvanic coatings. The production of composite coatings involves the deposition of nanodiamonds with a size of 4-6 nm and metals during the electrochemical and chemical recovery of metals from their salt solutions. The resultant biphase composite electrochemical coating comprises a metal matrix with disperse particles of nanodiamonds embedded in it.

Polishing Compounds

Nanodiamond powder is broadly utilized in different polishing compositions in order to obtain especially smooth surfaces. The following factors influence the quality of any nanodiamond powder polishing paste:

  • Nanodiamond powder grain homogeneity (primary particle size and surface chemistry)
  • High nanodiamond powder concentration
  • High nanodiamond powder particle distribution in the matrix
  • High thermal resistance of the paste

The following are the other lapping and polishing applications:

  • Superhard and soft nanoabrasives
  • Mechanical seal lapping
  • Acrylic Sheet, aircraft windows and canopies
  • Lapidary materials
  • Metallic mirrors and precision metal polishing
  • Stainless steel sheet
  • Honing microtome knives
  • Precious stones
  • Orthopedic prostheses
  • Ceramics
  • Optical and laser optical components
  • Miniature and precision ball bearings

Other applications of nanodiamonds include:

  • Medical and biological applications
  • Cold-plasma metal-diamond and polymer-diamond coatings
  • Polymer-diamond composites (predominantly with thermoplastics)
  • Floppy disks, audio/video tapes
  • Semiconductor products
  • Translucent high-strength ceramics
  • Magnetic media ingredient
  • Oral dentifrices
  • Special glasses and crystals
  • Ceramic nanofilters
  • Bioactive carriers
  • Micromechanics
  • Cold ceramic nanoglues
  • Ceramic-reinforced metal alloys
  • Ceramic-metal electroplated hard coatings
  • New ceramic alloys
  • Low temperature sintering
  • Chromatographic carriers
  • Reinforcing fillers for plastics and rubbers
  • Dry lubricants for metal industry
  • Molecular sieves

EMFUTUR Technologies supplies a variety of nanomaterials, including nanographite/nanodiamonds mixtures and nanodiamonds. The company employs controlled dry detonation synthesis and purification procedures for the production of all grades of nanodiamonds and nanographite/nanodiamonds mixtures. It is well positioned to provide products with custom quality to meet special requirements.

About EMFUTUR Technologies

EMFUTUR Technologies is a high quality Nanomaterials supplier, offering nanoparticles, nanopowders, micron powders, and CNTs (carbon nanotubes) in small quantity for researchers and in bulk order for industry groups.

EMFUTUR Technologies product quality emphases the significance of purest Nanomaterials with uniform composition free of impurities for advanced research and production purposes.

With a portfolio of products targeting the needs of almost all Nanotechnology work groups, we help our customers by delivering best products with the assurance of quality.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by EMFUTUR Technologies.

For more information on this source, please visit EMFUTUR Technologies.

Date Added: Apr 16, 2013 | Updated: Jun 11, 2013
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