In what may prove to be a major development for scientists in fields ranging
from forensics to quantum communications, researchers at the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a new, highly
sensitive, low-cost technique for measuring light in the near-infrared range.
The technique can measure the spectrum of the specific wavelengths of near infrared
light used widely in telecommunications as well as the very weak infrared light
at single-photon levels given off by fragile biomaterials and nanomaterials.
They described their results in a recent issue of Optics Express.*
A lithium niobate waveguide (bottom left) combines a pump laser and a near-infrared signal, “up-converting” the signal to a visible wavelength. Two prisms (right) separate the signal from the combined beam and send it to an avalanche photodiode detector (top left), which reads the up-converted signal. Credit: NIST
A single photon detector is the key device needed to build highly sensitive
instruments for measuring spectra. For the past 30 years, scientists have made
steady progress increasing the efficiency and sensitivity of visible and ultraviolet
photon detectors while methods for detecting elusive single photons in the near-infrared
(NIR) range have faltered. The methods presently in use are too static-laden,
inefficient and slow, or depend on superconducting detectors, which require
expensive, low-temperature operating environments. The NIST group, Lijun Ma,
Oliver Slattery and Xiao Tang, wanted to develop a way to use existing detectors
such as avalanche photodiode detectors (APD), which work very well for detecting
visible light and are widely used, but are ineffective for the detection of
Their approach was to adapt a technique developed two years ago at NIST for
quantum cryptography that “up converts” photons at one frequency
to a higher frequency. The technique promotes the infrared photons up to the
visible range using a strong, tunable laser. During the frequency conversion
process, the narrow-band pump laser scans the infrared signal photons and converts
only those that have the desired polarization and wavelength to visible light.
Once converted to visible light, the signal photons are easily detected by commercially
available APDs. According to Tang, the new system enables the measurement of
spectra with sensitivity of more than 1,000 times that of common commercial
optical spectral instruments.
“Our key achievement here was to reduce the noise, but our success would
not have been possible without the many years of work by others in this field,”
says Tang. “We hope that our discovery will open doors for researchers
studying diseases, pharmaceuticals, secure communications and even solving crimes.
We are very excited to make this technology available to the larger scientific
* L. Ma, O. Slattery and X. Tang. Experimental study of high sensitivity infrared
spectrometer with waveguide-based up-conversion detector. Optics Express. Vol.
17, No. 16. Aug. 3, 2009.