In last week’s announcement of the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences lauded graphene’s “exceptional properties
that originate from the remarkable world of quantum physics.” If it weren’t
hot enough before, this atomically thin sheet of carbon is now officially in
the global spotlight.
The promise of graphene lies in the simplicity of its structure—a ‘chicken
wire’ lattice of carbon atoms just one layer thick. This sheet confines
electrons in one dimension, forcing them to race across a plane. Such quantum
confinement results in stellar electronic, mechanical and optical properties
far beyond what silicon and other traditional semiconductor materials offer.
What’s more, if graphene’s electrons were restricted in two dimensions,
like in a nanoribbon, it could greatly benefit logic switching devices—the
basis for computation units in today’s computer chips.
This image of a single suspended sheet of graphene taken with the TEAM 0.5, at Berkeley Lab’s National Center for Electron Microscopy shows individual carbon atoms (yellow) on the honeycomb lattice.
Now, Berkeley Labs materials
scientist Yuegang Zhang and colleagues at University of California, Los Angeles
are moving toward more efficient devices by studying the ‘noise’
in such graphene nanoribbons—one-dimensional strips of graphene with nanometer-scale
“Atomically-thin graphene nanoribbons have provided an excellent platform
for us to reveal the strong correlation between conductance fluctuation and
the quantized electronic structures of quasi-one-dimensional systems,”
says Zhang, a staff scientist in the Inorganic Nanostructures Facility at the
Molecular Foundry. “This method should have much broader use to understand
quantum transport phenomena in other nanoelectronic or molecular devices.”
Zhang and colleagues previously reported ways of fabricating films of graphene
(http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/04/08/graphene-films/) and revealing
low-frequency signal-to-noise ratios for graphene devices on a silica substrate
the current study, the team made graphene nanoribbons using a nanowire mask-based
fabrication technique. By measuring the conductance fluctuation, or ‘noise’
of electrons in graphene nanoribbons, the researchers directly probed the effect
of quantum confinement in these structures. Their findings map the electronic
band structure of these graphene nanoribbons using a robust electrical probing
method. This method can be further applied to a wide array of nanoscale materials,
including graphene-based electronic devices.
“It amazes us to observe such a clear correlation between the noise
and the band structure of these graphene nanomaterials,” says lead author
Guangyu Xu, a physicist at University of California, Los Angeles. “This
work adds strong support to the quasi-one-dimensional subband formation in graphene
nanoribbons, in which our method turns out to be much more robust than conductance
A paper reporting this research titled, “Enhanced conductance fluctuation
by quantum confinement effect in graphene nanoribbons,” appears in Nano
Letters and is available to subscribers online . Co-authoring the paper with
Zhang and Xu were Carlos Torres, Jr., Emil Song, Jianshi Tang, Jingwei Bai,
Xiangfeng Duan and Kang L. Wang.
Portions of this work at the Molecular Foundry were supported by DOE’s
Office of Science.