This report reviews the current state-of-art of antiviral approaches including
vaccines, pharmaceuticals and innovative technologies for delivery of therapeutics.
The introduction starts with a practical classification of viral diseases according
to their commercial importance. Various antiviral approaches are described including
pharmaceuticals and molecular biological therapies such as gene therapy and
RNA interference (RNAi) as well as vaccines for virus infections. Expert opinion
is given about the current problems and needs in antiviral therapy. SWOT (strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of antiviral approaches is presented
against the background of concept of an ideal antiviral agent.
A novel feature of this report is the use of nanotechnology in virology and
its potential for antiviral therapeutics. Interactions of nanoparticles with
viruses are described. NanoViricides are polymeric micelles, which act as Nano
medicines to destroy viruses. Various methods for local as well as systemic
delivery of antiviral agents and vaccines are described. Nanobiotechnology plays
an important role in improving delivery of antiviral. Advantages and limitations
of delivery of gene-based, antisense and RNAi antiviral therapeutics are discussed.
Anti-influenza measures applicable to human as well as avian forms are described.
Resistance can develop against neuraminidase inhibitors although it is less
than that with adamantanes. Considering these problems, there is need for a
more effective agent. Investigations into alternative anti-influenza target
will probably expand in the coming years. These include the development of mechanisms
to inhibit fusion between the virus envelope and the cell membrane.
After a discussion of current therapies of AIDS/HIV and their limitations,
new strategies in development of antiviral agents are described. Drug resistance
and toxicities are emerging as major treatment challenges. Based on a review
of technologies and drugs in development, it can be stated that there are good
prospects of finding a cure for HIV/AIDS in the next decade.
Hepatitis viruses are described with focus on hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis
B virus (HBV). Despite the presence of numerous drug candidates in the anti-HCV
pipeline, and the commitment of major R&D resources by many pharmaceutical
companies, it might still take several years for any new anti-HCV drugs to reach
the market. Although many companies are focusing their efforts on developing
viral inhibitors, cellular targets in the host are beginning to emerge as attractive
possibilities because they might enable the development of broad-spectrum antiviral
drugs with less chance for developing viral resistance.
Various commercially important viruses include herpes simplex (HSV) and human
papilloma virus (HPV). There a number of treatments but HSV is not destroyed
completely and remains dormant and activates from time to time to cause various
clinical manifestations. There is discussion about the role of HPV in cervical
cancer and vaccines available now seem to be adequate in preventing HSV-induced