In Situ Heating Series for Thermal Studies in a Controlled Environment

DENSsolutions offers the Wildfire In Situ Heating Series that can be used by investigators to conduct thermal studies in a stable and controlled environment within the TEM.

The system is designed for various applications, enabling users to change their high-end TEM from a static imaging tool into a multi-functional lab.

Wildfire Application Fields

  • Nanotechnology
  • LowD materials
  • Soft matter systems
  • Materials for energy applications
  • Materials engineering

Get More from the TEM: Three Reasons to Choose Wildfire

Examining materials while modifying the temperature would not only extend the application space of the standard TEM but would also improve its already strong imaging capabilities. With the Wildfire system, heating can be performed from room temperature to 1300 °C with ultimate sample stability, and temperature control in all directions.

The stability of this system guarantees that both the analytical performance and full resolution of each TEM are maintained, while sample dynamics are observed at very high temperatures.

Reason 1: High-Impact Publications

Experiment: Thermal degradation of perovskite solar cell

Whether researchers are from academia or industry, achieving the “game-changing” experimental results is their main priority. At Cambridge University, a research team studying energy-related materials employed the Wildfire system to investigate perovskite solar cells and their degradation processes at the time of heating.

Although the solar cells have become very popular, their lifetime and stability at high temperatures pose a challenge. Therefore, in situ TEM was utilized to interpret the variations in chemical composition and morphology, providing better insights into the degradation evolution and culminating in the Nature Energy publication.

Perovskite Solar Cell

Heat-induced degradation of perovskite solar cells. G. Divitini, et al. University of Cambridge, Nature Energy 2016. DOI: 10.1038/nenergy.2015.12.

Reason 2: Real-Time Dynamics

Macroscale behavior is strongly associated with the arrangement and transformation of atoms. In such a case, the Ru nanoparticles supported on silica were heated to 1300 °C with the help of the Wildfire system. While the SiO2 sphere evaporates at that elevated temperature, the Ru nanoparticles become extremely mobile.

Here, the nanoparticle in question changes its shape from round to square. This change can be fully examined because of the technology used in DENSsolutions’ heating systems. This technology guarantees sub-Å resolution and high sample stability, and thus allows a better understanding of the processes involved.

Atomic resolution at 1300 °C

Courtesy of Gatan. Acquired with Wildfire D6 (now H+ DT) and Gatan OneView IS camera on a Thermo Fisher Scientific (FEI) Tecnai TF20.

Reason 3: High-Temperature EDS

Examining chemicals while heating is extremely significant to interpret the dynamics of temperature-induced changes. High-quality EDS analysis at increased temperatures is also very difficult as strong infrared radiation is produced during heating, which can have an impact on the X-ray spectral acquisition.

The experimental evidence and technology provided by DENSsolutions demonstrate that in situ EDS at extreme temperatures is a robust and reliable method and can be used across a broad temperature range. Now, for the first time, EDS analysis can be carried out even at 1000 °C.

Acquired on a Wildfire S3. Maps courtesy of Bruker.

Acquired on a Wildfire S3. Maps courtesy of Bruker.


  • JEOL
  • FEI/Thermo Fisher Scientific

Performing Thermal Studies in a Controlled Environment

Wildfire Nanochip
Wildfire Sample Holder Tip
Wildfire Sample Holder
Wildfire System

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