Raman spectroscopy involves focusing a monochromatic (laser) light on a sample and detecting the light scattered by the sample, allowing for the identification and quantification of its component molecules. The simplicity and robustness of Raman Spectroscopy makes it suitable for a wide range of uses, ranging from investigating protein conformations to evaluating the temperature of a substance.
When selecting a Raman spectrometer, the primary consideration should be the wavelength of the laser light that will be utilized to excite the sample. Since the technique is related to the vibrational framework of the sample, it is not dependent upon the excitation wavelength, and therefore, the selection of the excitation wavelength should be chosen for maximum efficiency. The three main things to consider for deciding on the best excitation wavelength are scattering efficiency, fluorescence and sample heating.