Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have grown silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes directly on microelectronic devices.
By using resistive heating in a vacuum, nanowires and nanotubes were formed from a metal catalyst and chemical vapour at 700 to 1100 degrees Celsius. The formation of nanowires and nanotubes depended upon the temperature, catalyst and vapour.
Typically the nanowires were 30 to 80 nanometers in diameter and up to 10000 nanometers long. The nanotubes were 10 to 15 nanometers in diameter and up to 5000 nanometers long.