Nanoparticles are ultra fine particles having one dimension that measures 100 nm or less. Unlike bulk materials, these particles have greater surface area per weight. Therefore, the properties of materials change as their size approaches the nanoscale.
Silicon nanoparticles have a lower bulk density and larger specific surface area than bulk crystalline silicon. When exposed to air, the dispersion performance of these nanoparticles will be affected. Therefore, the nanoparticles should be stored in cool and dry room.
The chemical properties of silicon nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.
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The physical properties of silicon nanoparticles are given in the following table.
The thermal properties of silicon nanoparticles are provided in the table below.
Silicon nanoparticles can be synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of silicon in aqueous solution. It can also be prepared by the hydrolysis of alkyl silicates and subsequent condensation of silicic acid in alcoholic solutions using ammonia as catalyst.
The key applications of silicon nanoparticles are listed below:
- Luminescent display devises
- Micro and integrated semiconductors
- Solar energy cells
- Lithium-ion battery
- Silicon nanotubes, nanowires and nanofibers.