Editorial Feature

Yttria Stabilized Zirconia, YSZ (ZrO2 / Y2O3) Nanoparticles

Numerous innovative and unexpected solutions have been provided by nanoparticle research. Electronics, cosmetic and biomedicine fields have benefitted immensely through these solutions. This article will elaborate on the properties and applications of yttria stabilized zirconia nanoparticles.

Zirconia (zirconium oxide) is a crystalline oxide which exists in three phases with different crystal structures depending on the temperature - monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic. There is a significant volume change associated with the monoclinic-tetragonal transition, which can cause problems when processing the material.

Substituting some of the zirconium ions for yttrium stabilizes the cubic phase of the material, which is normally only formed at very high temperatures (>2690 °C) over a wide temperature range. This allows sintered zirconia products to be created, and also makes the material a conductor of O2- ions. This conductivity increases with temperature, and with yttrium dopant concentration up to a maximum at around 8 mol% yttria.

Zirconium belongs to Block D, Period 5, yttrium belongs to Block D, Period 5 and oxygen belongs to Block P, Period 2 of the periodic table.

Chemical Properties

The following tables list the chemical properties of yttria stabilized zirconia nanopowder.

Chemical Data
Chemical symbol ZrO2 / Y2O3
CAS No 308076-80-4
Group Zirconium 4
Yttrium 3
Oxygen 16
Electronic configuration Zirconium [Kr] 4d2 5s2
Yttrium [Kr] 4d1 5s2
Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4
Chemical Composition (based on 8 mol% Y2O3)
Element Content (%)
Zirconium 68.1%
Yttrium 3.2%
Oxygen 28.7%

Physical Properties

Yttria stabilized zirconia nanopowder is white in color and its physical properties are as below:-

Properties Metric Imperial
Molecular Weight 349.03 -

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of yttria stabilized zirconia are as per the table below:-

Properties Metric Imperial
Melting Point ~2700°C ~4890°F


Some of the applications of yttria stabilized zirconia are as below:-

  • Micro-ceramics, advanced ceramic applications and in film or thermal coatings
  • Textiles, nanofibers and nanowires
  • Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte microlayers.


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