Nanoparticles are significant scientific tools that are being explored in various technological and pharmacological fields. They are a link between larger materials and molecular or atomic structures. They are unique because of their large surface area.
Platinum is one of the rarest and most expensive metals. It has high corrosion resistance and numerous catalytic applications including automotive catalytic converters and petrochemical cracking catalysts.
Platinum nanoparticles are usually used in the form of colloid or suspension in a fluid. They are the subject of extensive research due to their antioxidant properties.
The chemical properties of platinum nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.
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The physical properties of platinum nanoparticles are given in the following table.
The thermal properties of platinum nanoparticles are provided in the table below.
Platinum nanoparticles can be prepared by reducing hexachloroplatinate. A solution of hexachloroplatinate is rapidly stirred upon the addition of a reducing agent such as hydrogen gas, which in turn causes platinum ions to be reduced to neutral platinum atoms. The solution rapidly becomes supersaturated due to the formation of a large number of platinum atoms. This process is followed by precipitation of platinum to nanoparticles.
The particles attain uniform size and shape if the solution is stirred vigorously. Aggregation of platinum nanoparticles can be prevented by adding stabilizing agent such as sodium polyacrylate can be added to the solution.
The key applications areas of platinum nanoparticles are listed below:
- Electrocatalysts and catalytic converters
- Magnetic nanopowders
- Polymer membranes
- Cancer therapy
- Coatings, plastics, nanofibers and textiles.