Editorial Feature

Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles - Properties, Applications

The numerous research activities based on nanoparticles have helped to pave the way for these particles to be widely used today. This article discusses the properties and applications of indium tin oxide nanoparticles. Indium is a Block P, Period 5 element, oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element, and tin is a Block P, Period 5 element

Indium tin oxide is a solid solution of indium (III) oxide (In2O3) and tin (IV) oxide (SnO2), usually in about a 90:10 or 95:5 ratio. Indium tin oxide nanoparticles appear as a blue powder, and are graded as an irritant which can cause skin and eye irritation, and trigger allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled. The morphology of these particles is spherical.

Chemical Properties

The chemical properties of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.

Chemical Data
Chemical symbol In2O3.SnO2
CAS No. 50926-11-9
Group Indium 13
Tin 14
Oxygen 16
Electronic configuration Indium [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Tin [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4
Chemical Composition (for an indium oxide/tin dioxide ratio of 90:10)
Element Content (%)
Indium 74.52
Oxygen 17.60
Tin 7.88

Physical Properties

The physical properties of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.14 g/cm3 0.257 lb/in3
Molar mass 428.34 g/mol -

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are provided in the table below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Melting point 1800-2200°C 3272-3992°F

Manufacturing Process

Indium tin oxide nanoparticles can be synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in an aqueous solution. The indium-tin ratio should be 9:1 (at.%).

Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to characterize morphology and composition of ITO nanoparticles.


Indium tin oxide is a key material in many electronic devices, as it has the unique properties or being both electrically conductive and optically transparent. The key applications of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are as follows:

  • Battery inhibitors
  • Solar photovoltaics
  • Display panel applications

Source: AZoNano

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