The numerous research activities based on nanoparticles have helped to pave the way for these particles to be widely used today. This article discusses the properties and applications of indium tin oxide nanoparticles. Indium is a Block P, Period 5 element, oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element, and tin is a Block P, Period 5 element
Indium tin oxide is a solid solution of indium (III) oxide (In2O3) and tin (IV) oxide (SnO2), usually in about a 90:10 or 95:5 ratio. Indium tin oxide nanoparticles appear as a blue powder, and are graded as an irritant which can cause skin and eye irritation, and trigger allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled. The morphology of these particles is spherical.
The chemical properties of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.
||Indium [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Tin [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4
|Chemical Composition (for an indium oxide/tin dioxide ratio of 90:10)
The physical properties of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are given in the following table.
The thermal properties of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are provided in the table below.
Indium tin oxide nanoparticles can be synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in an aqueous solution. The indium-tin ratio should be 9:1 (at.%).
Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to characterize morphology and composition of ITO nanoparticles.
Indium tin oxide is a key material in many electronic devices, as it has the unique properties or being both electrically conductive and optically transparent. The key applications of indium tin oxide nanoparticles are as follows:
- Battery inhibitors
- Solar photovoltaics
- Display panel applications