The prospects for using nanomaterials with diameters of <100 nm in number of applications is being widely researched around the world today across multiple domains such as pharmaceutical drug manufacture, biology, physics, chemistry, cosmetics, optical components, polymer science, mechanical engineering, and toxicology.
This article discusses the properties and applications of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles. Gadolinium is a Block F, Period 6 element, while oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element. Gadolinium is obtained from the minerals monazite and bastnasite. Gadolinium oxide is an inorganic compound. Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles appear in white powder form. They can cause eye irritations.
The chemical properties of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.
||Gadolinium [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4
The physical properties of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are given in the following table.
The thermal properties of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are provided in the table below.
Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles can be manufactured using several methods. The commonly used one is the precipitation of the hydroxide via the reaction of gadolinium ions with hydroxide, which is followed by thermal dehydration to the oxide. The nanoparticles are coated with a protective material to prevent the formation of larger polycrystalline aggregates.
The key applications of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are as follows:
- Fluorescent materials, luminescence, and electroluminescent devices
- Special optical glass and plasma display panels
- In the electric industry
- As additives, catalysts, and dopants
- In cathode-ray tubes, ferroelectric memory, and field emission displays
- High-resolution x-ray medical imaging
- Neutron converter
- Scintillators and sintering aids
- Solid oxide fuel cell
- UV detectors.