Editorial Feature

What are the Limitations of Using Cerium Oxide in Fuels?

In recent years, cerium oxide has been used in many different applications, including as a nanoparticle fuel additive to lower particulate matter emissions and boost fuel economy.

ImageForArticle_5374_15785792870309792.png

ImageCredit/Shutterstock: Rainer Fuhrmann

Many uses of cerium oxide nanoparticles result in the particle making their way into nature, which increases the odds of exposure, potential health effects, and ecological implications. The health impacts of cerium oxide nanoparticles are not just due to their innate toxicity, but also on the degree of physical contact. Even though this may seem logical, several research studies have confirmed the deleterious health effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on animals.

Cerium Oxide Fuel Additives as a Health Risk

A 2014 study by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) looked at toxicity differences between standard diesel exhaust and exhaust from diesel with a cerium oxide additive. The study scientists noted that by adding cerium oxide nanoparticles to diesel fuel, boosts fuel efficiency, but results in a transformation of emissions and possibly different health impacts.

To ascertain if cerium-additive diesel fuel causes more adverse effects on the lungs compared to conventional diesel, scientists exposed three different groups of lab rats to filtered air, diesel exhaust and cerium oxide diesel exhaust, for 5 hours daily over two days. The researchers found significant increases in N-acetyl glucosaminidase, a biomarker for lung damage, in the rats that were exposed to the cerium oxide exhaust. There were also minor, statistically insignificant rises in other biomarkers for lung injury in the additive group compared to the conventional diesel exhaust group.

In a separate study, EPA scientists also subjected two groups of lab rats to filtered air or additive exhaust for 5 hours per day, for 2 days or 4 weeks. Examinations of tissue samples indicated a quantity- and time-dependent build-up of cerium oxide in the lungs and liver. The study team also found a delayed clearance of cerium oxide by the lungs. The gas-phase and high levels of additive exhaust boosted lung inflammation at the 2-day mark, the researchers said, suggesting that gas-phase elements and particles influence lung toxicity. Histopathology and electron microscopy showed elevated alveolar septa density as a result of swelling, and heightened levels of macrophages after exposure to cerium oxide.

Taken together, these results reveal that additive exhausts trigger more adverse lung impacts than conventional diesel exhausts. Furthermore, lung and liver build-up of cerium, as well as delayed clearance, are major concerns, in addition to the health effects of standard diesel exhaust.

In a 2017 study, researchers looked specifically at the inhalation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. To reach their conclusion, the study team performed a toxicity study, involving exposing lab rats to aerosols of cerium oxide for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week and over 90 days.

Analyses of the test subjects revealed cerium oxide nanoparticles triggered chronic inflammation in the lungs. Also, the was a direct relationship between the size of nanoparticle dose and lung burden. At high doses, the lungs had difficulty clearing cerium. The study team said long-term damage due to exposure is possible.

Cerium Oxide as a Catalyst for Sustainable Fuels

The significant potential for cerium oxide as a catalyst for sustainable fuels could mean more prevalent use of the compound.

In a 2019 study, researchers from Stanford University described how cerium oxide could be used to more easily create carbon monoxide, a fuel precursor, from carbon dioxide. The key to the process described in the study was the stability of cerium oxide and its capacity to keep carbon in a steady oxidized form.

The study involved cerium oxide as an electrode and did not include an investigation of cerium oxide potentially being incorporated into a carbon monoxide fuel from this process.

Sources:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10408444.2010.529105?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=itxc20

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508701/

https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307269&Lab=NHEERL

https://news.stanford.edu/2019/09/16/catalyst-opens-way-sustainable-fuels-carbon-dioxide/

 

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

Brett Smith

Written by

Brett Smith

Brett Smith is an American freelance writer with a bachelor’s degree in journalism from Buffalo State College and has 8 years of experience working in a professional laboratory.

Citations

Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Smith, Brett. (2020, January 09). What are the Limitations of Using Cerium Oxide in Fuels?. AZoNano. Retrieved on April 12, 2021 from https://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=5374.

  • MLA

    Smith, Brett. "What are the Limitations of Using Cerium Oxide in Fuels?". AZoNano. 12 April 2021. <https://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=5374>.

  • Chicago

    Smith, Brett. "What are the Limitations of Using Cerium Oxide in Fuels?". AZoNano. https://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=5374. (accessed April 12, 2021).

  • Harvard

    Smith, Brett. 2020. What are the Limitations of Using Cerium Oxide in Fuels?. AZoNano, viewed 12 April 2021, https://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=5374.

Tell Us What You Think

Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this article?

Leave your feedback
Submit