Posted in | News | Nanoenergy

Advancing Nanogenerators Powered by Water Evaporation

For the evolution of self-powered adaptable wearable electronic equipment, a power source with long-term stability and flexibility is critical as per the latest research published in the Chemical Engineering Journal.

Advancing Nanogenerators Powered by Water Evaporation

Study: Robust and flexible wearable generator driven by water evaporation for sustainable and portable self-power supply. Image Credit: sKjust/

Importance of Self Powered Electronic Devices

Compact, ubiquitous, adaptable, and self-powered electronic gadgets have lately piqued the interest of many people due to their crucial implications in the growth of the Internet of Things, machine learning, tracking, health monitoring, and environmental danger identification.

Traditional electricity generation techniques, which rely primarily on power storage batteries, have difficulty achieving these needs due to the limitations of their hefty, flexible packaging, limited energy production duration, and need to be recharged beforehand.

Introduction to Ambient Thermal Energy and Nanogenerators

In the natural habitat, ambient thermal energy is a type of pervasive, clean, and sustainable source.

The transformation of ambient thermal energy into electrical energy using a nanotechnology-based nanogenerator has been shown to have substantial promise for many applications, particularly those that may be powered by the widespread, spontaneous method of water evaporation.

In previous studies, nanogenerators powered by the evaporation of water to power low-power electrical gadgets have been discussed.

Appropriate adherence durability, adaptability, and adequate electrical production are critical prerequisites for the evaporation of water-powered power conversion nanogenerators to reach realistic use in the realm of versatile, detachable, and wearable electrical gadgets.

Advantages of Oxide Nanoparticles

The nanogenerator's electrical generating components are oxide nanoparticles (SiO2 and TiO2).

Non-toxic, innocuous SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles are accessible through a straightforward preparation procedure, have a maximum yield, are inexpensive, are simple to get, and are ecologically acceptable.

Furthermore, SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles are hydrophilic, and their surfaces may be energized when immersed in water. These are essential properties for water evaporation-driven nanogenerators.

Utilization of Glass Fiber and PVDF Adhesive

Previous researches have shown that glass fiber may significantly improve the structural support of a composite structure.

PVDF is a type of polymer with excellent flexibility that has been utilized as adhesion to efficiently connect glass fiber and nanoparticles. As a result, in this study, SiO2, PVDF, and glass fiber are combined to form SPGF, whereas TiO2, PVDF, and glass fiber are combined to form TPGF.

A geometric textured fabric framework is formed by combining oxide nanoparticles, glass fiber, and PVDF. Glass fiber and PVDF can provide the nanogenerator with acceptable adhering durability and flexibility.

Unmanageable containers should be substituted with lightweight and more transportable potable water infrastructure to make nanogenerators more accessible. In the most recent article, a lightweight and more transportable water storage absorbent was employed as the water system mechanism, resulting in the nanogenerator's self-water delivery being achieved.

Advantages of Utilizing PET

Owing to its required flexibility, lightness, and being inexpensive, the extensible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film was chosen as the foundation.

The PET substrate has a strong insulative nature, which helps to eliminate nanogenerator short circuits during water evaporation. Because of these benefits, PET is an excellent substrate choice for the flexible water evaporation-driven nanogenerator.

Findings of the Result

When immersed in water, the surfaces of SiO2 Nanoparticles and TiO2 nanoparticles were negatively charged and positively charged, respectively.

The SiO2 nanoparticles were spherical, with an average diameter of around 300 nm. The TiO2 nanoparticles displayed characteristic hematite morphology, with a mean size of around 200 nm.

Over a certain extent of distortion or water cleansing, the nanogenerators lacking PVDF substance exhibit a tearing behavior between the nanoparticles and the platform. This demonstrated that, in the absence of PVDF substance, the link among the nanoparticles and glass fiber is created only by van der Waals force.

This force was not strong enough to produce a robust link between the nanoparticles, glass fiber, and substrate. PVDF material was shown to serve an important role in increasing the stickiness durability and reliability of composite nanogenerators.

By combining PVDF, the stickiness durability, and adaptability of SPGF and TPGF nanogenerators powered by evaporation of water were considerably enhanced. After interacting with water, the output performance of glass fiber and PVDF was assessed. The two generators' output performance was close to nil. This suggests that glass fiber and PVDF had no impact on the energy efficiency of the evaporation-driven hybrid material nanogenerator.

In summary, the wearable water evaporation-driven hybrid nanogenerators displayed superior overall efficiency in stickiness durability, as well as detachable, transportable, and inexpensive features.

Continue reading: Paper Thin Ferroelectric Nanogenerator For Next Generation Audio Technology.


Zhao, X. et al., (2022) Robust and flexible wearable generator driven by water evaporation for sustainable and portable self-power supply. Chemical Engineering Journal. 134671. Available at:

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

Ibtisam Abbasi

Written by

Ibtisam Abbasi

Ibtisam graduated from the Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad with a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering. During his academic career, he has worked on several research projects and has successfully managed several co-curricular events such as the International World Space Week and the International Conference on Aerospace Engineering. Having won an English prose competition during his undergraduate degree, Ibtisam has always been keenly interested in research, writing, and editing. Soon after his graduation, he joined AzoNetwork as a freelancer to sharpen his skills. Ibtisam loves to travel, especially visiting the countryside. He has always been a sports fan and loves to watch tennis, soccer, and cricket. Born in Pakistan, Ibtisam one day hopes to travel all over the world.


Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Abbasi, Ibtisam. (2022, January 14). Advancing Nanogenerators Powered by Water Evaporation. AZoNano. Retrieved on March 02, 2024 from

  • MLA

    Abbasi, Ibtisam. "Advancing Nanogenerators Powered by Water Evaporation". AZoNano. 02 March 2024. <>.

  • Chicago

    Abbasi, Ibtisam. "Advancing Nanogenerators Powered by Water Evaporation". AZoNano. (accessed March 02, 2024).

  • Harvard

    Abbasi, Ibtisam. 2022. Advancing Nanogenerators Powered by Water Evaporation. AZoNano, viewed 02 March 2024,

Tell Us What You Think

Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this news story?

Leave your feedback
Your comment type
Azthena logo powered by Azthena AI

Your AI Assistant finding answers from trusted AZoM content

Your AI Powered Scientific Assistant

Hi, I'm Azthena, you can trust me to find commercial scientific answers from

A few things you need to know before we start. Please read and accept to continue.

  • Use of “Azthena” is subject to the terms and conditions of use as set out by OpenAI.
  • Content provided on any AZoNetwork sites are subject to the site Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.
  • Large Language Models can make mistakes. Consider checking important information.

Great. Ask your question.

While we only use edited and approved content for Azthena answers, it may on occasions provide incorrect responses. Please confirm any data provided with the related suppliers or authors. We do not provide medical advice, if you search for medical information you must always consult a medical professional before acting on any information provided.

Your questions, but not your email details will be shared with OpenAI and retained for 30 days in accordance with their privacy principles.

Please do not ask questions that use sensitive or confidential information.

Read the full Terms & Conditions.