Benefits of Nano-Enhanced Biochar in Agriculture

A thorough review of the utilization of nano-biochar for the improvement and modulation of techniques for the agricultural industry and environmental sustainability has been publihsed in the journal Environmental Research.

Benefits of Nano-Enhanced Biochar in Agriculture

Study: Nano-biochar: A novel solution for sustainable agriculture and environmental remediation. Image Credit: paroonkorn srichan/

Introduction to Biochar

Biochar materials are abundant in carbon in terms of chemical composition and are obtained from the output of thermally controlled chemical degradation of biomass. This process generally takes place in a restricted supply or absolute absence of oxygen.

Biochar (BC) has recently been widely used as a soil additive and manufactured on a large scale worldwide. The usage of BC has industrial applications in a variety of fields, including agriculture, agro-industry, biotechnology, and pollution control.

Bulk-BCs (sizes ranging from a few mm to a few cm) are often used in agricultural applications. Biochar-based solutions for dealing with fossil fuel emissions are relatively new.

Difference between Biochar and Nano-biochar

Nano-biochar is a specific biochar substance that has a structural size in the nanometre range possessing improved physiochemical as well as morphological characteristics.

Apart from the size range, the inherent properties include intra-particle forces, morphology, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and specific surface area (SSA).

The size of BC is mostly determined by the settings used during thermal decomposition. By adjusting the thermal decomposition temperatures and grinding duration, the size of BCs may be optimized. 

Fabrication of Nano-biochar

Mechanical crushing is claimed to be the most commonly utilized approach for nano-BC production.

Grinding is a well-known process for converting woody BC obtained from Gliricidia sepium into graphene nano-BC. Recently, pre-processed and dehydrated rice husk-derived nano-BC manufacturing aided by milling has also been described.

The manufacturing of nano-BC from pine wood using a ball milling method has also been demonstrated as a sustainable and energy-efficient method.

Application of Nano-Biochar for Improvements of Agricultural Soil Properties

Climate change and technological challenges have recently had a significant impact on the agriculture sector. These problems, particularly in agriculture and soil, might be handled by utilizing nano-BC, which can reduce the natural bioavailability of toxicants while also restoring damaged soils.

The use of nano-BC increases soil properties, making it more suitable for the growth and development of plants. Nano-BC provides an optimal soil habitat for bacteria by improving soil porosity, resistance, and water holding capabilities, all of which are essential for soil activity maintenance.

According to several tests, the emission of N2O drops by about 83% following BC modification. Additionally, biochar amendment at a rate of 1% – 2% (w/w) has been shown to increase soil bulk density and water retention capacity.

Removal of Soil Toxins by Nano-Biochar

Tree roots and other important minerals effectively absorb nano-BC floating or scattered in water. Rice grew well, and the anatomical alterations in saplings improved as a result of the cumulative effect of nano-BC and ferulic acid.

Soil researchers and cultivators are concerned about potentially dangerous metal contamination. Because of their sustainability and nanotechnology-related properties, the usage of BC and nano-BC is getting popular in their elimination.

Biochar-based techniques for metal cytotoxicity mitigation have been developed; however, due to the lack of nano-specific features, this effectiveness could not be fully used.

Utilization of Nano-biochar for Environmental Remediation

Nano-remediation techniques have proven to be beneficial to ecological sustainability and pollution reduction. Biochar and nano-BC are capable of dealing with the considerable influence of carbon nanotechnology in agribusiness and botanical engineering to increase crop output.

Nano-BC not only accelerates the decomposition of organic pollutants by coordinating energy shifts like a catalytic substance, but it may also actively interact with hazardous pollutants, therefore positively impacting external factors or concerns.

Antibiotic Removal by Nano-Biochar

Bulk-BC generated biomass was used for the absorbance of antibiotic materials such as sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol.

Nano-BC, on the other hand, has an advantage over the bulk-BC since it contains a higher proportion of exterior reactive groups.

A recent study employed nano-BC derived from wheat via milling method to extract tetracycline from alkaline phase via sorption process. Nano-BC outperformed bulk magnetic BC in terms of antimicrobial removal capacity. This might be considered a convincing confirmation of the effectiveness of nano-biochar.

However, it must be remembered that there are several drawbacks to using natural nano-BC for primary ecological applications, including limited stability and difficulties in isolating nano-particles. However, the limits and risks associated with them can be mitigated by various processes developed through additional research.


Rajput, V.D. et al. (2022) A novel solution for sustainable agriculture and environmental remediation. Environmental Research. Available at:

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Ibtisam Abbasi

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Ibtisam Abbasi

Ibtisam graduated from the Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad with a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering. During his academic career, he has worked on several research projects and has successfully managed several co-curricular events such as the International World Space Week and the International Conference on Aerospace Engineering. Having won an English prose competition during his undergraduate degree, Ibtisam has always been keenly interested in research, writing, and editing. Soon after his graduation, he joined AzoNetwork as a freelancer to sharpen his skills. Ibtisam loves to travel, especially visiting the countryside. He has always been a sports fan and loves to watch tennis, soccer, and cricket. Born in Pakistan, Ibtisam one day hopes to travel all over the world.


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