The prospects for using nanomaterials with diameters of <100 nm in number of applications is being widely researched today across multiple domains such as biology, physics, chemistry, cosmetics, optical components, pharmaceutical drug manufacture, polymer science, mechanical engineering, and toxicology.
This article discusses the properties and applications of nickel oxide nanoparticles. Nickel is a Block D, Period 4 element, while oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element. Nickel oxide nanoparticles appear in green powder form, and are graded as very toxic. They can cause an allergic skin reaction, prolonged harmful effects to aquatic life, and possible damage to organs due to prolonged or repeated exposure.
The chemical properties of nickel oxide nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.
||Nickel [Ar]3d8 4s2
Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4
The physical properties of nickel oxide nanoparticles are given in the following table.
The thermal properties of nickel oxide nanoparticles are provided in the table below.
Nickel oxide nanoparticles can be manufactured by thermal decomposition of freshly prepared nickel hydroxife by sol gel route at 300°C (572°F). The nickel oxide nanoparticles created using this method can be characterized using x-ray diffractometer and vibrating sample magnetometer.
The key applications of nickel oxide nanoparticles are as follows:
- In preparation of nickel cermet for the anode layer of solid oxide fuel cells
- In lithium nickel oxide cathodes for lithium ion microbatteries
- In electrochromic coatings, plastics and textiles
- In nanowires, nanofibers and specific alloy and catalyst applications
- As a catalyst and as anti-ferromagnetic layers
- In light weight structural components in aerospace
- Adhesive and coloring agents for enamels
- In active optical filters
- In ceramic structures
- In automotive rear-view mirrors with adjustable reflectance
- In cathode materials for alkaline batteries
- Electro chromic materials
- Energy efficient smart windows
- P-type transparent conductive films
- Materials for gas or temperature sensors, such as CO sensor, H2 sensor, and formaldehyde sensors
- As a counter electrodes