A paper published in the journal Materials Today: Proceedings sheds light on the influence of nanoparticles (NPs) on engines efficiency, engine health, and emission parameters. The article also analyzes the impact of varied sizes and doses of nanoparticles on the working of diesel engines.
Study: Influence of nano-additives on engine behaviour using diesel-biodiesel blend. Image Credit: bunyarit/Shutterstock.com
Main Drawbacks of Biodiesel
Petroleum-based fuels are utilized to power most vehicles. The burning of petroleum-based fuels emits a variety of hazardous pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NOx), unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and smoke emissions.
Many investigations have been conducted to develop alternatives to fossil fuels obtained from biological mass and waste items such as discarded plastics and tires. Biodiesel has arisen as one of the most attractive liquid fuels that may be used as a substitute to conventional diesel.
While biodiesel may serve as a substitute for diesel fuel partially or completely, it has several restrictions. Due to the additional oxygen in the fuel, biodiesel-powered engines emit greater NOx. Biodiesel has a low retention capacity in the long-term, as well as large densities and viscosities.
Since biodiesel fuels engines produce greater carbon residues in the nozzle injection system, it is necessary to replace the fuel filter, fuel line, and nozzle on a regular basis to prevent blockage.
Are Nanoadditives the Solution?
Scientists have devised a fix, namely the incorporation of nanoparticles in biodiesel.
Blending these nanoscale additives with biodiesel changes its thermochemical qualities, increases the rate of heat transference, which has an immediate influence on fuel emissions, improves burning dynamics, and makes it more stable.
In most situations, biodiesel is combined with conventional diesel and utilized as a substitute fuel. Additives predicated on metals, like MgO, Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO have been tested to decrease engine exhaust emissions and increase performance. The usage of nanoscale additives enhances fuel economy, optimizes burning dynamics, and reduces NOx emissions.
It has been recognized that using aluminum oxide nanoscale additives in diesel-Jatropha methyl ester (JME) and diesel-pongamia powered engines reduces NOx emissions. Nanoparticles are useful for merging due to their large surface area.
According to previous studies, the introduction of NPs to the fuel delivery line causes blockage of the gasoline in the fuel delivery line. These disadvantages may be solved by including the appropriate amount of NPs in the biodiesel. Much research has been undertaken to analyze the impact of utilizing nanoscale additives in diesel–biodiesel blends; however, it is challenging to establish a generalized conclusion regarding the influence of nanoparticles because of ambiguous and inconsistent reported data.
The existing research findings on the utilization of nanoparticles in biodiesel have been comprehensively explored in this review paper. This article discusses the influence of introducing nanoscale additives to biodiesel on engine operation, efficiency, and emission characteristics.
The article also discusses the crucial elements of using nanoscale additives, like the choice of nano-additive, preparing the nanofluids, the performance enhancement of the engine, the emission impacts of NPs on people's health, and the benefits and drawbacks of nanoscale additives.
The Final Word
This research investigated the use of nanoscale additives in diesel–biodiesel fuel mixes and reached the following results based on an analysis of several experimental studies. The majority of previous studies have shown that metal-based and oxygenated additives help decrease pollution. The use of TiO2 nanoparticles improves the engine's braking power.
The latest research has employed oxygenated additives since they are affordable and readily accessible. Optimum engine performance can be obtained by lowering the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), however, the majority of the studies indicated that adding biodiesel raised the BSFC owing to its reduced calorific value and heating competence. Therefore, more biodiesel emulsion fuel is required to lower BSFC and improve performance.
Little research explores the inclusion of biodiesel feedstocks having different forms of nanoparticles. Nevertheless, metallic nanoparticle pairings have received a great deal of attention.
The integrity of nanofluids was evaluated throughout the testing phase, but no investigation was done about the nanoparticles' long-term stability, hampering the potential employment of nanoparticles.
Devaraj, A., Nagappan, M., Yogaraj, D., Prakash, O., Rao, Y. A., & Sharma, A. (2022). Influence of nano-additives on engine behaviour using diesel-biodiesel blend. Materials Today: Proceedings. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214785322019472?via%3Dihub