New Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Dopamine

In an article published in the journal Materials Today: Proceedings, composites were created by magnetically mixing TiO2 and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into a polymer to create a one-of-a-kind biosensor with great specificity.

New Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Dopamine​​​​​​​

​​​​​​​Study: Dopamine sensor based on coreshell poly paraphenylene diamine/ titanium dioxide/ multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite. Image Credit: Peshkova/

Characteristics of Polymer Nanocomposites

Nano-filled composite materials formed by nanoparticles to a polymer matrix may greatly increase their efficiency by merely capitalizing on the structure and features of the nanoscale filler.

This approach is very effective in manufacturing high-performance composites when excellent filler distribution is achieved, and the characteristics of the nanoscale filler are considerably different or superior to that of the matrix.

Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites

Nanomaterials like graphite, carbon nanotubes, metal alloys, and tungsten disulfide are used as reinforcement materials to produce mechanically robust biodegradable polymeric nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

When such nanoparticles are introduced to the polymer matrix in small quantities, the tensile and flexural mechanical properties of polymeric nanomaterials improve dramatically. Many studies have examined TiO2 nanoparticles and discovered that they might be used in solar panels, photocatalytic activity, sensors, and electro-optic gadgets.

Carbon nanomaterials have piqued the attention of researchers in a range of fields because of their fascinating molecular, electrical, and mechanical properties. Due to their unusual structures, high stability, reduced electrical resistivity, and high specific surface area ratios, nanoparticles, in particular, have been extensively exploited in biomolecule sensing.

Conductivity of PpPDA

In this study, conductive Poly (p-phenylenediamine) (PpPDA) was created by chemically oxidative polymerization. The conductance of titanium dioxide and multiwalled carbon nanotube-containing p-phenylenediamine nanocomposites was examined. This study was used to determine the biosensing behavior of conducting nanoparticles.

The nanocomposites' FT-IR spectra were collected in the operating frequency band of 400 to 4000 cm. UV–Vis spectra of DMF specimens were collected using a dual-beam spectrometer with a reading speed of 400 nm/min in the spectral range of 200 to 900 nm.

Key Findings of the Research

Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology and growth properties of the generated nanocomposites. P-phenylenediamine was grainy and homogenous in structure. The granular structure of PpPDAT was thin and irregular. The photographs obtained at higher resolution revealed the compacted powder's irregular shapes and porous nature.

PpPDAM had a tube-like geometry that was encompassed by grainy nanostructures. Granular particles indicated the polymer P-phenylenediamine, whereas the tube-like architecture was a multiwalled carbon nanotube.

The geometry of PpPDATM showed that the polymeric interface had significantly encapsulated granules owing to multiwalled carbon nanotubes and TiO2 NPs spread evenly in the polymer matrices, which may modify the properties of the P-phenylenediamine.

CV first demonstrated the advantages of synthesized nanoparticles. As indicated in the analysis, the typical oxidation threshold of dopamine at the PpPDATM nanocomposites adjusted GCE was greater than that at the PpPDA altered one. Moreover, due to the inclusion of PpPDA, TiO2, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the nanomaterials, the standard achieved at the former was much greater than that reached by the latter.

PpPDATM nanocomposites modified GCE outperformed P-phenylenediamine in terms of current responsiveness. The phenomenon might be attributed to a significant number of holes for dopamine attachment in PpPDATM nanoparticles.

Highlights of the Study

DPV had an acceptable linear dependence at varying dopamine doses. The reliability coefficient value of R2 from the linear regression model was 0.9886, and the detection limit was as small as 9.45 x 10-12 M.

PpPDATM nanocomposites with several holes may attach dopamine through aromatic ring mounting and hydrogen bonding among dopamine amino groups and TiO2 oxygen-containing groups. The supremacy of this novel electrochemical sensor, which has a strong current response, a low detection limit, and great selectivity, demonstrated the benefits of PpPDATM nanocomposites.


Rajeshwari, V., C. V., & Fernando, J. (2022). Dopamine sensor based on coreshell poly paraphenylene diamine/ titanium dioxide/ multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite. Materials Today: Proceedings. Available at:

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

Shaheer Rehan

Written by

Shaheer Rehan

Shaheer is a graduate of Aerospace Engineering from the Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad. He has carried out research on a wide range of subjects including Aerospace Instruments and Sensors, Computational Dynamics, Aerospace Structures and Materials, Optimization Techniques, Robotics, and Clean Energy. He has been working as a freelance consultant in Aerospace Engineering for the past year. Technical Writing has always been a strong suit of Shaheer's. He has excelled at whatever he has attempted, from winning accolades on the international stage in match competitions to winning local writing competitions. Shaheer loves cars. From following Formula 1 and reading up on automotive journalism to racing in go-karts himself, his life revolves around cars. He is passionate about his sports and makes sure to always spare time for them. Squash, football, cricket, tennis, and racing are the hobbies he loves to spend his time in.


Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Rehan, Shaheer. (2022, June 01). New Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Dopamine. AZoNano. Retrieved on December 11, 2023 from

  • MLA

    Rehan, Shaheer. "New Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Dopamine". AZoNano. 11 December 2023. <>.

  • Chicago

    Rehan, Shaheer. "New Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Dopamine". AZoNano. (accessed December 11, 2023).

  • Harvard

    Rehan, Shaheer. 2022. New Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Dopamine. AZoNano, viewed 11 December 2023,

Tell Us What You Think

Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this news story?

Leave your feedback
Your comment type