Editorial Feature

Optoelectronic Advancements with Perovskite Quantum Dots

Here, we discuss perovskite quantum dots, their applications in optoelectronics and recent relevant developments.

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Perovskite quantum dots have gained significant attention, especially in the field of optoelectronics, due to their excellent optical properties, including high photoluminescence quantum yields, tunable emission colors, and narrow emission linewidths.

What are Perovskite Materials?

Perovskite materials are a class of compounds having a specific crystal structure known as the perovskite structure with the general chemical formula ABX3, where A and B are cations, and X is an anion.

The perovskite structure is characterized by a three-dimensional cubic or tetragonal lattice arrangement, which was first discovered in the mineral perovskite (calcium titanate), from which the name is derived. However, the term "perovskite" has been more widely used to describe a broad class of materials exhibiting this specific crystal structure, even if they do not contain the same elements as the original mineral.

Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) are nanoscale semiconductor materials that exhibit perovskite crystal structures that possess unique optical and electronic properties due to quantum confinement effects. In the context of perovskite quantum dots, X is a halide ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide.

How are Perovskite Quantum Dots Synthesized?

The synthesis of perovskite quantum dots involves various methods. For hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite quantum dots, a room-temperature technique is employed, where ligand-assisted reprecipitation is used. The process includes dissolving PbBr2, CH3NH3Br, n-octylamine, and oleic acid in Dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by dropping toluene into the resulting mixture.

For all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots, synthesis methods include the hot-injection method, room-temperature method, microfluidic reaction system, and micelle method.

Each method involves dissolving specific precursors in various solvents and optimizing reaction parameters for size control and purification. Additionally, hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite quantum dots with mixed cations, such as MA/CsPbBr3 and FA/CsPbBr3, are synthesized using similar emulsion-based methods, introducing organic cations to enhance stability and performance in various applications.

Optoelectronic Applications of Perovskite Quantum Dots

Perovskite quantum dots have many optoelectronic applications. In light-emitting diodes (LEDs), perovskite quantum dots demonstrate high electroluminescent efficiency, converting electric current into pure and bright light, making them potential candidates for flexible and curved displays in various devices. Despite limited durability in current perovskite QDLEDs, ongoing research and development focus on enhancing their performance.

Additionally, perovskite quantum dots show promise in laser applications, particularly in CsPbBr3 quantum dots, with diverse laser structures and ultralow lasing thresholds, which is attributed to their high photoluminescence quantum.

The tunable bandgap of perovskite quantum dots allows for better matching with the solar spectrum, enabling the absorption of a broader range of wavelengths. Moreover, the quantum dots' small size facilitates improved charge transport properties, reducing energy loss during the conversion process. This has the potential to boost the overall efficiency of perovskite solar cells, making them more competitive with traditional silicon-based solar technologies.

Recent Developments

Sn-Based Perovskite Quantum Dot Breakthrough

In a 2017 study, researchers made notable advancements in the field of optoelectronics by focusing on the application of CsPb1-xSnxBr3 perovskite quantum dots. They successfully replaced toxic Pb2+ ions with stable Sn4+ via the hot-injection synthesis method, increasing the absolute photoluminescence quantum yield from 45% to 83%. This substitution demonstrated a clear suppression of trion generation, as evidenced by femtosecond transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence.

The CsPb0.67Sn0.33Br3 quantum dots exhibited enhanced performance in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), displaying a luminance of 12,500 cd m-2, a current efficiency of 11.63 cd A-1, and an external quantum efficiency of 4.13%. This achievement represents a significant stride in developing efficient and stable Sn-based perovskite quantum-dot LEDs.

Bilateral Passivation: Boosting QLED Performance

In a recent breakthrough, researchers have significantly improved the efficiency and stability of perovskite quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). Perovskite QLEDs are known for their potential in high-quality lighting and displays, but defects formed during quantum dot film assembly hinder their performance.

The study introduces a bilateral passivation strategy involving the application of organic molecules to both the top and bottom interfaces of the quantum dot film. This innovative approach has led to a substantial increase in the external quantum efficiency (EQE) to 18.7%, a current efficiency of 75 cd A-1, and an operational lifetime boost of 20-fold to 15.8 hours. The findings emphasize the critical role of passivation on both interfaces for constructing high-performance perovskite QLEDs and other optoelectronic devices, showcasing improved stability and efficiency.

Conclusion

In conclusion, perovskite quantum dots offer unique optical and electronic properties. The synthesis methods and applications of perovskite quantum dots span a wide range, from displays and LEDs to potential advancements in solar cells.

A recent breakthrough involving Sn-based perovskite quantum dots showcased a significant stride in achieving efficient and stable light-emitting diodes. Moreover, a novel bilateral passivation strategy has notably enhanced the performance of perovskite QLEDs, emphasizing the crucial role of passivation for improved stability and efficiency in optoelectronic devices.

These developments underscore the promising future of perovskite quantum dots in revolutionizing various technological applications.

See More: Next Generation Quantum Dot Pixel Based LCD Displays

References and Further Reading

Perovskite Quantum Dots (pqds) Perovskite-info. Available at: https://www.perovskite-info.com/perovskite-quantum-dots-pqds

Quantum Dot Materials (2020) What are perovskite quantum dots?, Quantum Solutions. Available at: https://quantum-solutions.com/blog/what-are-perovskite-quantum-dots/

Wang, H. C., et al. (2018). Perovskite quantum dots and their application in light‐emitting diodes. Small. doi.org/10.1002/smll.201702433

Wang, H. C., et al. (2017). High‐performance CsPb1− xSnxBr3 perovskite quantum dots for light‐emitting diodes. Angewandte Chemie. doi.org/10.1002/ange.201706860

Xu, L., et al. (2020). A bilateral interfacial passivation strategy promoting efficiency and stability of perovskite quantum dot light-emitting diodes. Nature communications. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17633-3

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Taha Khan

Written by

Taha Khan

Taha graduated from HITEC University Taxila with a Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. During his studies, he worked on several research projects related to Mechanics of Materials, Machine Design, Heat and Mass Transfer, and Robotics. After graduating, Taha worked as a Research Executive for 2 years at an IT company (Immentia). He has also worked as a freelance content creator at Lancerhop. In the meantime, Taha did his NEBOSH IGC certification and expanded his career opportunities.  

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