The application of nanotechnology in the field of neuroscience poses numerous challenges. Despite this fact, nanotechnology has the potential of having a remarkable impact on the knowledge of functioning of the nervous system, its failure in disease, and the development of less-invasive and advanced diagnostic techniques to enable intervention in the pre-clinical stage of neurological disease even before substantial neurological damage.
The intrinsic functions of brain systems and cells are gradually altered by disease processes such as chronic neurodegenerative disorders. The expansive growth in the knowledge of the brain in the past decades has not transformed into a proportional increase in the treatment efficacy of neurological disorders.
As bio-engineered systems interacting with biological systems at a molecular level are used in nanotechnology, it can provide spectacular enhancement in the treatment of such disorders. Nanotechnological tools function on a dimensional scale that enables physical interactions with not only neurons but also the tiny glial cells.
These small devices and tools have the potential to be used for pharmaceutical and medicinal applications. With its characteristics such as greater drug concentrations at target sites, sustained release, minimal toxicity, increased half-life, and less side effects, nanomedicine has already transformed the prevailing drug regimen to be highly effective.
As nanotechnology enables the delivery of drugs, genes, growth factors, and cells across the blood-brain barrier; supports and promotes functional regeneration of damaged neurons; and provides neuroprotection, it exhibits higher probability of the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders.
This study provides a neurobiological overview of chief neurological disorders and outlines the various types of nanomaterials being used. Various applications of such nanotechnology developments in the field of neurological sciences are depicted, and the challenges posed by toxicity of the nanomaterials are discussed.
This study takes into account the challenges and promises that future researchers have to face in furthering the developments in this path-breaking field.