V-931: Fast Steering Mirror for Laser Optical Communication and Laser Beam Control

Voice coil motors are direct drives conveying the force of the drive element directly to the load without using mechanical transmission parts, such as a coupling, drive screw, or gearhead.

Voice coil drives are made up of a permanent magnet and a winding body positioned in the magnetic field’s air gap.

The winding body moves when current flows through it, causing the permanent magnet’s magnetic field to change.

Voice coil drives are particularly well suited for applications with high dynamics and velocities at constrained travel ranges due to their low weight and friction-free drive mechanism. These drives are free from the effects of hysteresis, enabling high scan frequencies and precise positioning.


  • Compact design
  • Durable and friction-free thanks to flexures
  • Noncontact direct position measuring with linear encoders
  • Beam deflection angle to 8°
  • Two orthogonal tip/tilt axes with a common center of rotation
  • Identical motion characteristics of both axes thanks to parallel kinematics

V-931.01, dimensions in mm.

V-931.01, dimensions in mm. Image Credit: PI (Physik Instrumente) LP

High Dynamics Multi-Axis Operation Due to Parallel Kinematics

All actuators in a parallel-kinematic multi-axis system operate on a single platform. The axes’ uniform designs and low mass inertia make fast, dynamic, and precise motion possible.

Application Fields

  • Test and inspection: AOI (automated optical inspection), noncontact profilometry, sensor testing
  • Optics: Optical filters/switches, optical trapping, grid scan, tracking
  • Beam stabilization
  • Satellite communication
  • Image processing/stabilization
  • Laser micromachining. Laser tuning and laser scanning/beam steering with large deflection angles


Source: PI (Physik Instrumente) LP

Motion V-931.01 Tolerance
Active axes θX θY  
Rotation range in θX ± 2 °  
Rotation range in θY ± 2 °  
Linearity error in θX 0.2 % typ.
Linearity error in θY 0.2 % typ.
Positioning V-931.01 Tolerance
Integrated sensor Incremental linear encoder  
Bidirectional repeatability in θX ± 2 µrad typ.
Bidirectional repeatability in θY ± 2 µrad typ.
Minimum incremental motion in θX 1 µrad max.
Minimum incremental motion in θY 1 µrad max.
Settling time for 100% step in θX 20 ms max.
Settling time for 100% step in θY 20 ms max.
Sensor resolution, rotational 1 µrad max.
Interpolation factor 65536  
Sensor supply voltage 5 V ±10 %
Drive Properties V-931.01 Tolerance
Drive type Voice coil  
Nominal voltage 24 V  
Peak voltage 24 V  
Nominal current, RMS 0.5 A typ.
Peak current, RMS 1.5 A typ.
Force constant 32.8 N·mm/A  
Resistance phase-phase 13 Ω typ.
Inductance phase-phase 1.9 mH  
Mechanical Properties V-931.01 Tolerance
Distance of pivot point to platform surface -3.2 mm ±0,05 mm
Resonant frequency in θX, unloaded 29 Hz ±20%
Resonant frequency in θY, unloaded 29 Hz ±20%
Overall mass 290 g  
Mass without cable 135 g  
  V-931.01 Tolerance
Connector D-sub 15-pin (m)  
Recommended controllers / drivers


Cable length 1 m  
Operating temperature range 5 to 40 °C  

Peak current, RMS: Max. duration 1.0 s

Settling time for 100% step: 44 mrad, 2% settling band, payload: 1-inch mirror 5 mm thickness

Distance of pivot point to platform surface: Gap below the platform's mounting surface

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